Q) "There is one country in our neighbourhood whose competitive advantage rests solely in producing and exporting terrorism". Justify the statement and suggest how can India effectively utilize the international fora in order to counter this export of terrorism. (250 Words)
Source: Black and Grey
Introduction: Pakistan's whole international Politics is centred around the conflict of Kashmir today. It has fought with India in four wars and has made either no progress or lost its territory in each one of them. Thus its advantage does not lie in the conventional warfare.
Pakistan's Disadvantage on other fronts:
- Conventional War: India has significantly more numbers of active combatants, fighter aircrafts, Naval ships, submarines. Further, India boasts its Aircraft carriers, better curise and ballistic missiles.
- Nuclear Disadvantage: Although Pakistan has more nuclear warheads, yet it lacks critical delivery systems. India has till now completed its nuclear triad, which gives it critical second strike capability. This ensures that any nuclear adventurism would be disadvantagous to Pakistan.
- Diplomatic Disadvantage: India's influence international organizations such as UN is second to only the Permanent members of UN Security council. India has a considerable soft power which has gained India a temporary seat in UNSC recently. India also showcased its diplomatic strength by getting able to elect Justice Dalvir Bhandari in International Court of Justice(ICJ) against a Judge pitched by UK, wherein for the first time a permanent member of UNSC has lost at ICJ on a vote. Thus Pakistan cannot raise its issues successfully against India on international forum.
Thus over the years, it has changed its strategy to a two pronged action:
- Infiltration of terrorist, smuggling of arms & ammunition, contraband. It infiltrates terrorists in order to disturb peace and order in India. This activity is financed by Illegal drug trade. Pakistan drives the complex network of drub peddlers in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, which is popularly known as the Golden Crescent.
- Ceasefire violations: Line of Control(LoC) is most active and liver portion on the border. Pakistan involves here in Cross-border firing. It is a low intensity limited war or 'Eyeball to eyeball' confrontation. The intensity is consciously kept low as Pakistan lacks a competitive advantage in a conventional or Nuclear war.
Pakistan's Terror links in India and its successes.
- Bleed India with a Thousand Cuts is a military doctrine followed by the Pakistan military against India. It aims to engage India in thousands of non-conventional limited wars.
- Rise of Islamist fundamentalism in Kashmir: The real threat is from regional affiliates of Al-Qaeda & Taliban based in Pakistan who, though sharing their philosophy & outlook, have now developed separate networks capable of undertaking jihadi onslaughts on their own.
? For example Jaesh-e-Mohammad(JeM) was formed by Masood Azhar who handed over by India to Talibans at Kandahar in exchange of IC-814 hijacking hostages. Its objective is to Unite Kashmir with Pakistan. In October 2001, it conducted a suicide attack at JK legislative assembly;
? More recent example is of Pulwama Attack.
- Rise of Strikes in other parts of India: For example JeM conducted Indian Parliament Attack on 13th December 2001 and multiple attacks in 2005-06. Lashkar-e-Taiba is known to have developed cells not only in India but also in 18 countries, including US, UK, France, Singapore & Australia. The Pathankot attack was conducted through direct infiltration from Pakistan.
India can effectively use various international forums to counter Pakistan's export of terrorism for Inflicting Diplomatic Cost on Pakistan: Making it costlier to use terrorism as a cheap instrument of strategic advantage.
- Using our influence in UN and UN's Security Council's seat: to designate terrorist groups in Pakistan.
- Using Financial action Task force(FATF) which takes measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. It makes difficult for the country to get financial aid from IMF, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and EU. Thus creating financial pressure on an already stressed economy of Pakistan.
- Isolating Pakistan Diplomatically: Over the recent years, India has used this strategy, by reducing Pakistan's options in the international forums, by creating alliances against terrorism. India banks on highlighting the loss of lives of various nations in the attacks sponsored by Pakistan. Also highlighting the fact that Osama-Bin-Ladin was found in Pakistan.
- Supporting Anti-Pakistani movements internationally: There have been many groups active against the activities of Pakistan from Gilgit-Baltistan, Baluchistan etc. India can help them to gain popularity on international forums.
Conclusion: In this context this statement was made by the Prime Minister of India in 2016 to highlight the Pakistani policy. The Indian establishment realizes this. Thus many experts such as Shyam Sharan have suggested that India must inflict diplomatic as well as costs on the Pakistan, if it takes support of terrorism.