Daily Answer Writing
21 April 2021

Que) Unconventional wars are not fought merely on the ground, they are battles between minds of steel. What should be the approach to counter ideology oriented terrorism? Discuss in context of Left-wing extremism in India. (250 Words)

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/maoist-attacks-chhattisgarh-crpf-left-wing-extremism-7282033/ ,  <https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-long-battle-against-the-maoists/article34369961.ece>

GS 3: Internal Security

Approach Answer:


Introduction: Left wing Terrorism(LWE) is an ideology that believes that all the existing social relations and state structures in the capitalist society are exploitative in character and a revolutionary change through violent means is essential. This movement is mostly spearheaded by the peasant class motivated by 'leftist' ideologies  provided by the writings of Marx and Engels and supported by the writing s & speeches by Lenin & Mao Tse-tung(Zedong).


LWE in India: In India LWE arose in the tribal areas of Siliguri such as Naxalbari, Khoribari and Phansidewa areas in 1967 violation of permissible ceiling on land holdings. It later spread throughout West Bengal in 1970s and then eventually spread in Bihar-Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh-MP, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh-Telangana, and parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. This eventually culminated into guerrilla warfare, an insurgency with a wide support by the tribals of these areas.


Thus there is a need to fight both the ideology as well as the insurgency.


Measures to be taken to tackle ideology oriented Terrorism are as follows:


Tackling ideology:

              1. Fostering the sense of Justice: Justice system must be made efficient for Quick and effective hearing of disputes to implement rule of law.

              2. Improved governance: Better health, education and public services infrastructure, to boost confidence in the system.

              3. Skill Development and employment: The central schemes such as Van Dhan Vikas Yojana, Village and digital connect scheme must not remain only on paper, and must be implemented juiciously

              4. Securing Traditional rights: The tribals are  promised various individual and community rights under 5th Schedule, Forest rights act and Provision of Panchayat, extension to scheduled areas act(PESA). These must be effectively implemented.

              5. Infrastructure development: Effective Implementation PM Gram Sadak Yojana etc.

              6. Ensuring fruits of development- A greater portion of revenue from mining activities must be ensured for the local development.

              7. Countering Corruption: Conducting Audits and establishing accountability to monitor actual implementations of schemes on ground, to prompt quick localized responses. 

Countering insurgency:

              1. Strengthening local forces: Experience suggests that the Central forces have the numbers and the training, but local police have knowledge or intelligence, which proves to be more effective.

              2. Effective Intelligence sharing: Between cross-border police and central agencies.

              3. Better Training : Training in cyber-forensics, data gathering, counter offensive operations is sine qua non.

              4. Better Equipment: Such as automatic guns, mine scanners, bullet proof and comfortable uniforms.

              5. Boosting connectivity: The government has embarked upon various initiatives such as Installation of Mobile Towers, greater focus on road construction etc. This is necessary for mobility and response of the forces.

              6. Increased Funding on Internal security:  Special Central Assistance (SCA)- for filling critical gaps in public infrastructure and services of emergent nature. For example, The centre can support the Police budget in Naxal affected states.


Conclusion: In addressing the Left wing extremism, role of government at each and every level is essential for effective response. Governance and maintenance of law and order can be effectively addressed at local level, and advisory, monitoring and supportive role can be taken up by the central government. However, due to limited capacity of the state governments, a greater portion of funding shall be required.

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