18 January 2021: The Hindu Editorial Analysis
1) Update debate: On WhatsApp and privacy.
Privacy of citizens is too important to be left to the business practices of digital companies.
GS-1: Effects of globalization on Indian society.
GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
GS-3: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics,
GS-4: Case Studies: accountability and ethical governance; Information sharing and transparency in government,
2. Privacy of a billion citizens is too important a thing to be left just to the practices of a commercial enterprise to do business without morality.
1. The new policy says that how user data is impacted when there is interaction with a business on the platform, and provides more details on integration with, WhatsApp’s parent company “Facebook. “third-party services “
2. According to which users would no longer be able to option of sharing data with Facebook. February 8 was kept as the deadline for the new private policy to be accepted.
Features of the new private Policy:
1. End-to-End Encrypted: means nobody can see your messages or share it with anyone.
2. Information Sharing with Third Party Services: When users rely on third-party services or other Facebook Company.
3. Businesses interacting with users: App says that any businesses that users interact with may provide the platform with information as well.
4. Hardware Information: WhatsApp can collects information from devices such as battery level, signal strength, app version, browser information, mobile network, connection information.
5. Deleting the Account: If someone only deletes the WhatsApp app from their device without using the in-app my account feature, then that user’s information will remain stored with the platform.
6. Data Storage: App mentions that it uses Facebook’s global infrastructure and data centers data may share in out of USA.
7. Location: Even if a user does not use their location-relation features, Whatsapp collects IP addresses and other location.
8. Payment Services: app says that if anyone uses their payments services they will process additional information about you, including payment account and transaction information.
Compare EU law vs India Law on privacy:
European Union (EU):
1. Europe’s stringent its General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), prevents such sharing between apps.
2. The General Data Protection Regulation (2016) EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA). It also addresses the transfer of personal data outside the EU and EEA areas.
3. Users there are in control of their data much more than anywhere else in the world.
4. EU, policy says Users can access, rectify, port, and erase their information.
1. India did not have specific laws on data protection even India did not implemented the Personal Data Protection Bill; there is no control over how user data will be processed by companies.
2. However In Puttaswamy v India (2017) case, Right to privacy was established as a fundamental right under article 21.
3. The Information Technology Act (2000) (“IT Act”) to include Section 43A and Section 72A, which give a right to compensation for improper disclosure of personal information.
4. Under Section 72-A of the IT Act. The Act Penalises the offender for three year imprisonment or a maximum fine of Rs 5 lakh. on Breach of data privacy.
5. The Aadhar act Section 13 makes the processing of personal data without a person's consent possible for any function of the Parliament or State Legislature.
1. The enactment of the Personal Data Protection Bill and the successful implementation of the Act.
2. More amendment in IT ACT (2000), and strengthen data protection.
3. Implementation of “Srikrishna Committee Report” on data localization.
4. The might be privacy guidelines by the private companies operating in India.
5. Draft new “National E-Commerce Policy Framework” data privacy and grant infrastructure status to data centers.
6. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs) are agreements between governments that facilitate the exchange of information and privacy.
Morality and philosophy over data protection laws:
1. Don’t interfere over other private life, data and privacy of individual.
2. Lawfulness, fairness and transparency data protection.
3. Purpose limitation in data share and not to share.
4. Data minimization only basic information.
5. Accuracy and true over company and government policy.
6. Storage limitation over fake and doubtful companies.
7. Integrity and confidentiality (security)
8. Accountability over data.
Social media usage by government raises significant policy?
1. Challenges, including access, governance, privacy, security, and archiving.
2. Many policies about previous technologies relate to government social media usage.
3. Researchers can investigate a wide range of questions to help shape more inclusion policies related to social media.
1. There is need to have an integrated long-term strategy for policy creation for data privacy and Right to privacy.
2. The State accordingly is giving those private moments to be enjoyed with those whom they want without the prying eyes of the rest of the world.
3. The right to privacy refers to the concept that one's personal information is protected from public scrutiny and birch of data.
2) The unraveling of liberal globalism.
Donald Trump has been defeated, but not Trumpism and the anti-globalist politics it has unleashed.
GS-1: Effects of globalization on Indian society.
GS-2: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
GS-3: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
1. The alter the fundamentals of American foreign policy since the end of the Second World War by Donald Trump and its consequences.
2. Mr. Trump, a product of the crisis in globalised capitalism, took the U.S. back to pre-war isolationism. And its effect on geo-politics of worlds.
Which Mr. Trump policy change global order:
1. His ‘America First’ doctrine’ in the driving seat of his foreign policy especially in the past.
2. He decried the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the bedrock of the trans-Atlantic military cooperation, and threat to withdraw from the NATO.
3. Pulled the United States out of international organizations and multilateral treaties, Paris agreement ,UNESCO
4. Launched tariff wars with both friends and foes alike like India, china and Brazil.
6. President Donald Trump has officially recognized Israeli sovereignty over the occupied Golan Heights, seized from Syria in 1967.
7. Trump Administration’s Policy Failures Compounded the Coronavirus-Induced Economic Crisis.
8. Trump’s immigration policy, visa rules might do more harm than good to the economy in the long term of USA.
Is America’s isolationism did not start with Mr. Trump policy?
1. After first world wars an emerging economic and military power was largely an isolated country that was focused on its own rise and expansion.
2. The economic catastrophe caused by the Great Depression 1929-39 and the losses it suffered in the First World War prompted the American isolationists.
3. But after 2nd world war USA emerge as global superpower and active participation in world politics may overcome by china rise.
The Wilsonian imprint: history of liberalization.
1. The roots of the liberal internationalist order can be traced to the ideals of the 28th American President, Woodrow Wilson.
2. Wilson, who led the U.S. to the First World War, called for a rules-based global order governed by international institutions in which countries could cooperate and achieve peace (what he called “an organized common peace”) rather than going to war to meet their goals.
3. Liberal capitalist economic model and freer trade and emphasis on human rights would lay the foundations of the liberal global order.
4. The U.S. turned to liberal globalism and took up the leadership of the western world. It called itself and its allies the “free world”, claiming moral superiority over the communist and socialist dictatorships.
5. After 1991 collapse of USSR, the U.S. stepped up its leadership role: It started wars to protect human rights, export democracy and defeat jihadists.
Are Structural shifts in world policy?
1. The geostrategic charm of the liberal moral argument about freedom has diminished in 1991, the post-Cold War world.
2. On the other side, with the rise of religious terrorism, even liberal democratic governments started arming themselves with more powers that often clashed with civil liberties.
3. The liberal promise of ‘minimum government’ stayed confined to the economic realm, while the security state kept expanding its powers.
4. But liberal policy rise many issues like USA-Iran, Afghanistan, North Korea, Libya, and Iraq.
5. The economic crisis of 2008 led to The focus shifted away from human rights and civil liberties to fighting terrorism and stopping immigration in many of these countries
Is Negative Aspects of liberal Globalization?
1. Globalization makes it virtually impossible for regulators in one country to foresee the worldwide implications of their actions.
2. Globalization transfers consumption of limited oil supply from developed countries to developing countries.
3. Globalization uses up finite resources more quickly and negative manner.
4. Globalization increases world carbon dioxide emissions and Climate change.
5. Globalization acts to increase world oil prices and Energy resource.
6. Globalization transfers jobs from developed countries to less developed countries.
7. Globalization transfers investment spending from developed countries to less developed countries.
8. Globalization leads to huge US balance of trade deficits and other imbalances, With the dollar as the world’s reserve currency.
9. Globalization tends to move taxation away from corporations, and onto individual citizens
10. Globalization sets up a currency “race to the bottom,” with each country trying to get an export advantage by dropping the value of its currency.
11. Globalization encourages dependence on other countries for essential goods and services
12.Globalization ties countries together, so that if one country collapses, the collapse is likely to ripple through the system, pulling many other countries with it.
13. Globalization ties countries together ,lead to cultural, ethnic and racial friction .
Solution for globalization:
1. Need or change Current policies because is not adequate to handle the economic dislocations caused by technology.
2..Regulation over media The information age is not bringing people together in harmony but hardening their identities as information grows more segregated
3.Strengthen the global organization, UN, WTO, and climate organization.
4. The task of making societies more resilient will help prepare them to handle current and future problems.
5. Democracy should ideally self-regulate to limit economic inequality may need global policy.
6. Readdresses the tensions that exist between sovereignty, democracy, and economic integration.
7.The Risks of Climate Engineering, is need of the hours to separate” Fact From Fiction”
From Trump to Biden:
1. Mr. Trump, a product of the crisis in globalised capitalism, took the U.S. back to pre-war isolationism.
2. Mr. Trump’s such as the U.S.’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord or its exit from the World Health Organization forwarded new challenge.
3. There could be broad agreements on issues such as climate change or the fight against COVID-19.
4. Totalitarianism and the nature of the human condition in times of crises, Mr. Biden is the right choice for President who hopefully, has the vision for an exceptionally progressive change.
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2. A powerful foundation of inspiration to the people’s movements fighting against totalitarian lying and the infringement of basic human rights, and self-government.
3. Republicans and Democrats will disagree sharply—with each other and among themselves—over the objectives of U.S. foreign policy. whether the next “America First” president and foreign policy are just four years away.
3) Rise of shadow entrepreneurship.
Without regulation, the situation could spiral out of control
GS-1: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
GS-3: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
1. The global rise of shadow entrepreneurship, not just in education but other sectors such as finance (for easy loans), the betting economy (online games) and healthcare (e-pharmacies).
2. Given the potential perverse consequences of shadow entrepreneurship in the long run for consumer welfare, regulation is needed to monitor quality of services.
About shadow entrepreneurship:
1. Shadow entrepreneurs are individuals who manage a business that sells legitimate goods and services but they do not register their businesses.
2. This means that they do not pay tax, operating in a shadow economy where business activities are performed outside the reach of government authorities.
3. Entrepreneurship could claim to be a legitimate ?eld of academic in-quiry in all respect except one: it lacks a substantial theoretical foundation.
Why rise of shadow entrepreneurship?
1. Constraints are the “shadow” of entrepreneurship because they constantly and permanently exist before and after entrepreneurial endeavors.
2. To put it differently, entrepreneurship and constraints define each other, and constraints are closely related to entrepreneurship like a shadow by its side.
3. Constraints have the strongest link with entrepreneurship (like a shadow by its side), beating rivalry concepts.
“Supply and demand shock”:
1. India has second-highest number of shadow entrepreneurs in the world.
2. When there is a supply and demand shock as momentous as COVID-19, a new market may open up to tackle the shifting inwards of markets, owing to rising prices and lower quantities available.
3. Shadow entrepreneurs, offering the allure of technology-mediated services, can help release the associated distortions and frictions in the market by offering complementary services.
4. The initial spike in demand and ensuing lock-in effects might imply higher market power for early movers.
5. Small firms will get acquired by large firms. First movers in the space with deep pockets could generate irrationally high valuations.
6. Shadow entrepreneurialism may spike short-run welfare effects with technology mediated access; they could create perverse welfare consequences in the long run.
1. India also must not end the regulatory arbitrage that allows shadow entrepreneurs to raise most of their funds from retail investors and deposit-taking banks. Either shadow lenders should come out of the dark and be turned into entrepreneurs, or a firewall will have to be erected around them to protect the rest of entrepreneurs.
2. For every big business that is legally registered in India, there are 127 shadow businesses that are not. Shadow entrepreneurs are individuals who manage a business that sells legitimate goods and services but they do not register their businesses.
3. Law needed who do not pay tax, operating in a shadow economy where business activities are performed outside the reach of government authorities.
4. As these businesses are not registered it takes them beyond the reach of the law and makes shadow economy entrepreneurs vulnerable to corrupt government officials.
5. It could boost its rate of formal economy entrepreneurs by up to 50%, while cutting the rate of entrepreneurs working in the shadow economy by up to a third. This means that the government could benefit from additional revenue such as taxes”.
6. The researchers suggest that shadow entrepreneurs are highly sensitive to the quality of political and economic institutions.
7. Where proper economic and political frameworks are in place, individuals are more likely to become ‘formal’ entrepreneurs and register their business, because doing so enables them to take advantage of laws and regulations that protect their company, such as trademarking legislation.
8. Informal entrepreneurs trade legal products and services, yet do not apply for business registration or file any incorporation documents with government authorities. The phenomenon of informal entrepreneurship is seen as a potential driver of job growth and economic development, especially in developing countries.
9. A large share of these would qualify as informal entrepreneurs. Informal entrepreneurship also speaks to another important issue for less developed countries, that of poverty.
The institutional qualities of a society and its economy — such as economic freedom, the presence of policies that condition the operation of private sector, and institutions regulating the balance of political power and the structure of the bureaucratic system — play an important role in either facilitating or inhibiting economic growth or alleviating poverty”.