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How to prepare for UPSC/IAS Prelims Exam?

How to Start UPSC Main Exam Preparation

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IAS/ UPSC Mains exam accounts for 86% of the total marks which determine your rank.To achieve success in the Mains exam, you should first, understand the demands of the examination, then prepare a plan and lastly, practice regularly.

Understand the IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Requirement

Know the Exam Pattern for IAS/ UPSC Exam

Paper Topic Marks Time Alloted Number of Questions
Paper-I Essay 250 3 hours 2 questions
Paper-II General Studies – I (Culture, History & Geography of the World & Society) 250 3 hours 20 questions
Paper-III General Studies – II (Governance, Polity, Social Justice & International Relations) 250 3 hours 20 questions
Paper-IV General Studies – III (Technology, Economy, Ecology and Internal Security) 250 3 hours 20 questions
Paper-V General Studies – IV (Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude) 250 3 hours 13 Theory Questions 6 Case Studies
Paper-VI Optional Subject – Paper I 250 3 hours 19 questions
Paper-VII Optional Subject – Paper II 250 3 hours 19 questions
Paper A Compulsory Indian Language from Schedule 8 300 (secure 25%) 3 hours 6 questions
Paper B Compulsory English Language Paper 300 (secure 25%) 3 hours 5 questions

IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam is a descriptive-type paper. Six of these papers are three hours long with approximately 20 questions each, while the essay paper has two questions. The word limit is somewhere between 150 to 250 words for the General Studies and Optional Papers. For both essays, the word limit is approximately 1000-1200 words.

Apart from this, there are two language papers that are only qualifying in nature which include Paper A for any Indian language from the Eight Schedule and Paper B for English language. The maximum marks that can be secured at this stage are 1750.

Syllabus for Mains Exam

It is strongly advised that you print the Mains exam syllabus and put it up at a visible location and know it thoroughly. This will help you to streamline preparation and stick to the syllabus while reading current affairs, magazines and books.

Paper Subject Syllabus
General Studies Paper I Art & Culture Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
History Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present History of the world including political philosophie
Geography Geophysical phenomena like earthquakes, distribution of resources and location of industries, effects of changes in geographical features like flora & fauna etc.
Society India’s diversity, role of women, urbanization, poverty, globalization, secularism etc.
General Studies Paper II Polity Features of the Constitution, federalism, separation of powers, basic structure, important bodies etc.
Welfare Government Policies and Welfare Schemes, poverty and hunger issues, social services etc.
Governance Development Industry, Pressure Groups, Accountability etc.
International Relations International Institutions, India’s relations with its neighbours and in other global groupings, Indian diaspora etc.
General Studies Paper III Economy Growth & Resource Mobilisation, Government Budgeting, Investment & Infrastructure, Liberalisation etc.
Agriculture Policies on Irrigation, Minimum Support Price, Land Reforms, Cropping Patterns, Technology for Farmers, Food Processing Industry etc.
Environment & Ecology Conservation, pollution, degradation, environmental impact assessment etc.
Disaster Management Disasters and models of disaster management.
Internal Security Extremism, Terrorism, Organised Crime, Role of Non-State Actors, Cyber security, Border Areas etc.
Science & Technology Achievements of Indians, Indigenization of Technology, Awareness in IT, Space, Computers, Nano-Technology, Intellectual Property Rights issues etc.
General Studies Paper IV Aptitude & Emotional Intelligence Integrity, impartiality, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance, compassion, application of Emotional Intelligence in Administration.
Thinkers Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world
Ethics in Public Administration dilemmas in institutions, conscience as a source of ethical guidance, accountability, ethics in international relations, corporate governance etc.
Probity in Governance Public service, transparency, right to information, code of ethics, citizen’s charter, quality of service delivery, corruption etc.
Case Studies On all topics mentioned for GS Paper 4 and on ethical dilemmas case studies will be posed.
2 Optional Papers To be chosen from a list of 26 subjects provided in the UPSC notification. You can refer to the syllabus provided in detail in the UPSC Notification. (i) Agriculture (ii) Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science (iii) Anthropology (iv) Botany (v) Chemistry (vi) Civil Engineering (vii) Commerce and Accountancy (viii) Economics (ix) Electrical Engineering (x) Geography (xi) Geology (xii) History (xiii) Law (xiv) Management (xv) Mathematics (xvi) Mechanical Engineering (xvii) Medical Science (xviii) Philosophy (xix) Physics (xx) Political Science and International Relations (xxi) Psychology (xxii) Public Administration (xxiii) Sociology (xxiv) Statistics (xxv) Zoology (xxvi) Literature of any one of the following languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English.
Essay 2 Essays Each essay is 125 marks with a word count of approximately 1000-1200 words. It can be on any topic factual or philosophical.
2 Language Papers Indian Language Only 25% passing marks are required. The papers are only qualifying in nature

Review Previous Year Questions

Not all topics from the syllabus are asked every year. A detailed study of the Previous Questions Questions will tell you that some topics are favoured by IAS/ UPSC examination. Your understanding of these important topics will help you allocate your limited time to the most important topics. Having said that, you can not leave any topic and everything must be covered in the syllabus. Previous Year Questions are available on ‘IAS/UPSC Mains Past Papers’.

GS Paper I Questions Asked Previously in IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam

Year Indian & World History Art & Culture Geography Society
2019 4 1 8 10
2020 2 4 8 6
2021 2 1 8 6
2022 3 3 8 6
2023 4 2 8 6

GS Paper II Questions Asked Previously in IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam

Year Polity Constitution Governance Social Justice I. R.
2019 6 2 6 2 4
2020 10 6 3 3 4
2021 3 6 2 3 4
2022 6 4 4 3 3
2023 2 7 3 4 4

GS Paper III Questions Asked Previously in IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam

Year Economics Agricultur Science & Technology Ecology Security Disaster Management
2019 4 4 4 2 4 2
2020 4 4 4 3 4 1
2021 5 4 3 3 3 2
2022 5 4 3 2 4 2
2023 4 4 3 4 4 1

Strategise for Success in IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

Preparing a Plan IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

A plan is must to establish timelines and ensure regular revisions and practice. You can take reference of ‘Topper’s Journey’ as well for your plan. Remember that the plan should be flexible and broken down in yearly, quarterly, monthly and daily intervals. Adapt the plan to your requirements and schedule.

Another way to ensure that you are on track is by enrolling in a Test Series or Coaching Classes. Chahal IAS Academy has an illustrious record of its students bagging top ranks. You can check out our various courses here ‘Chahal IAS Academy Coaching’.

Yearly Plan for IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

Months Mains Preparation
June to August Prepare Optional and start with General Studies topics which are common in Mains and Prelims like Economics, History, Geography and Polity.
Read one newspaper either the Hindu or the Indian Express.
Sep to Dec Complete optional preparation.
Revise and give Practice Tests for topics already completed. You can also begin answer writing practice.
Continue to read newspaper and refer to Monthly Current Affairs magazine of Chahal IAS for effective revision and practice questions.
Complete Mains specific topics like World History, Internal Security, Disaster Management, Ethics etc.
You can start writing Essays once a week
Jan- May Shift Focus to Prelims Preparation.
Pickup Mains Preparation after Prelims Exam.

Daily Plan for IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

The hourly plan will depend on your habits and sleep schedule. Remember that this plan should be reasonable as you have to stick to it for the entirety of your preparation journey. A daily plan should also include regular exercise and revision slots. Be sure to take sufficient breaks.

Booklist for IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

Topic NCERT Books Standard Books
History, Indian Heritage & CultureWorld History [GS Paper 1] Themes in Indian History Part I, II, III- Class 12
Themes in World History- Class 11
Introduction to Indian art- Class 11
Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania
India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra
A Brief History of Modern India- Spectrum Publications
Geography [GS Paper 1] NCERT Class XI – Fundamentals of Physical Geography
NCERT Class XI – India – Physical Environment
NCERT Class XII – Fundamentals of Human Geography
NCERT Class XII – India – People and Economy
World Atlas (Orient Black Swan)
Certificate Physical and Human Geography – G C Leong
Indian Society[GS Paper 1] Google specific topics and make your own notes for Salient features of Indian Society,Diversity of India.Role of women and women’s organization,population and associated issues,poverty and developmental issues,urbanization, their problems and their remedies.Effects of globalization on Indian society.
Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
Polity & International Relations[GS Paper 2] NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Political Theory
NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Indian Constitution at Work
NCERT XII (Contemporary World Politics)
Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth Introduction to the Constitution of India by DD Basu
Governance and Social Justice
Economy[GS Paper 3] NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development
NCERT Class XII – Introductory Macroeconomics (Ignore Mathematical Formulas and focus on concepts)
The Indian Economy by Sanjiv Verma Latest Economic Survey
Chahal IAS Academy NCERT Compendium for Indian Economy (Includes Class 6-12)
Internal Security, Disaster Management and Environment [GS Paper 3] Class XII Biology Chapter- 13-1 PMF IAS Environment for UPSC Challenges to Internal Security of India – Ashok Kumar National Disaster Management Plan by National Disaster Management Authority Selective reading of magazines like Yojana & Kurukshetra
Ethics [GS Paper 4] Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude for Civil Services Main Examination by Subba Rao and P.N. Roy Chaudary

Current Affairs for IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

Incorporating Current Affairs for UPSC Mains exam is crucial to give your rank a boost. Relevant current examples are a must to substantiate the points you are making in all papers. Especially for the Ethics Exam, you can use case studies and examples of various ethical role models from the newspaper.

Paying Attention to Optional, Essay and Ethics Preparation

These three subjects (total 4 papers) set the students apart. They are crucial for determining the final rank of a candidate.

Practicing essay writing and Ethics case studies is important. These are the two papers in which your individuality is reflected. They require you to think critically and present a balanced perspective. Essay paper requires writing two essays one each from an option of 4 topics. You must choose the topic wisely and brainstorm the essay’s outline well before you start writing.

Revision & Answer Writing Practice IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam Preparation

While a lot of students clear the Prelims Exam, most of them fail the Mains Exam. They do not lack knowledge, but they lack answer writing ability needed to clear a subjective-type examination.

You must remember that you are studying to clear the exam, and not to secure a PhD. Keep your sources limited and revise thoroughly. Sequential revision is important so that you visit the topic regularly and not forget it.

Note-making is also an important art you need to learn for quick revisions and higher retention. With good notes, you can revise thousands of pages in just 2 hours which is the demand of the Exam as two mains papers happen on the same day with a gap of only a few hours.

Answers for General Studies papers are to be given in 150-250 words. The craft of answer writing requires that you put important points first and structure the answer well. You can do this only if you read the question thoroughly and understand the demand of the question. The answer should be peppered with relevant examples. There should be an introduction, body and conclusion for each answer. With only 7-8 minutes to answer each question, there is very little time to think during the exam. Your notes and practice should be such that you are able to write flawless articles on muscle memory alone. Regular practice will help you gain confidence and learn time management.

IAS/ UPSC Mains Exam is a descriptive-type paper. Six of these papers are three hours long with approximately 20 questions each, while the essay paper has two questions. The word limit is somewhere between 150 to 250 words for the General Studies and Optional Papers. For both essays, the word limit is approximately 1000-1200 words.

Apart from this, there are two language papers that are only qualifying in nature which include Paper A for any Indian language from the Eight Schedule and Paper B for English language. The maximum marks that can be secured at this stage are 1750.

It is strongly advised that you print the Mains exam syllabus and put it up at a visible location and know it thoroughly. This will help you to streamline preparation and stick to the syllabus while reading current affairs, magazines and books.

UPSC mains exam is the second stage of the civil services examination. Candidates who clear the Prelims exam i.e. those who score above the cutoff in General Studies Paper I and more than 33% marks in General Studies Paper-II (CSAT) are eligible to appear for the UPSC Mains. To prepare for the UPSC Mains examination one must understand its pattern and syllabus first. The Civil Services (Main) Examination is a written examination and consists of 9 papers of conventional essay type, two of them are Qualifying Papers and the rest of the Papers are counted for merit.

UPSC Main Exam syllabus

The two language papers are easy and qualifying and its purpose is to make sure that the candidate has a grip on general languages like English, Hindi or any regional languages listed in the Eighth Schedule. The papers which are counted for merit are seven in total and descriptive. The general purpose of a descriptive paper is to understand a person’s thinking pattern, personal opinion on various social and general issues, attitudes, skills, emotional quotient, social quotient and his application of current affairs in various social-economic aspects.

Tips for UPSC CSE mains

Tips ias mains exam

The Mains examination is not just about testing your knowledge on the subjects but your way of approaching the answer, articulation of the problem, and providing an effective solution on a positive note within the prescribed word limits. Examiner will also judge your answers on various parameters like conceptual clarity, content relevance, objectivity, use of examples and illustrations, etc.

In recent years, UPSC CSE's mains paper went through visible changes. Earlier in mains question papers majority of the questions were asked directly from some of the reputed books and if a candidate had good command over those books, his/her chances of clearing that exam were maximum. However, things have changed now i.e at present, if you analyze the mains question papers of the last 5 years you can easily come across the domination of the current affair portion especially in papers 2 and 3.

To prepare for the mains a candidate first needs to understand the nature of questions and an approach to prepare for important topics of the syllabus. All the question papers contain word and time limits, therefore, the focus should also be given to time management and learning the art of answer writing which is writing as much relevant content as possible, understanding the demand of the question.

Four Important things to follow in one's preparation:

  1. Practice answer writing as much as possible, one can start with questions from NCERTs.
  2. Revise the subjects as many times as possible.
  3. Make Notes in pointers, keep it precise.
  4. Follow Current affairs, make notes Paper wise(not date-wise), and try to link your notes with the Static part of the syllabus. 

Paper wise Strategy for UPSC Mains Exam: 

General Studies Paper I

  • The syllabus of GS paper 1 consists- Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society. These have further been divided into 12 topics and 40 subtopics.
  • Once you are acquainted with the syllabus you should immediately start with the basics, reading NCERTs and NIOS material for GS Paper has proven to be beneficial for many candidates especially for the Indian Heritage, Culture, and History part, one can download these materials from the following link
  • https://chahalacademy.com/free-downloads-ncert-book
  • The most appropriate way to approach Paper I of the GS mains Paper is to understand the topic more broadly. e.g. Why Gupta Age is considered a golden era and why Magadha was the most powerful Mahajanpada of that time.
  • In the Art and Culture portion, questions asked by UPSC nowadays are more analytical which requires both factual content and good analysis to answer the why and how. You can answer such questions well only when you understand the historical background in which such art was produced. This is why you must read NCERT XI Ancient India for it gives you that historical context.
  • For the Indian Society portion of the syllabus, the Class 12 NCERT book on Indian Society is more than enough, but a candidate can also refer to Ram Ahuja's Indian Society for an in-depth understanding of the topics.
  • For the Geography part, reading and making notes out of NCERTs is a must thing to do along with Goh Cheng Leong's Physical Geography, as discussed above the question in this section also come from an analytical and conceptual perspective, for instance, Impact of El-Nino on Indian Monsoon, conditions for a cyclone to develop, how climate change impacts agricultural activities so on. Illustrations through maps in geography make answers more catchy and soothing and one can grab good marks by using this approach. A candidate should not only read the topics but also make notes in pointers covering all the angles related to a topic which can be asked in the examination for revision in less time and long-lasting retention.
  • FFollowing current affairs and making notes is an inevitable part of the preparation as one can always expect direct and indirect questions on the topics contained in the syllabus.  

General Studies Paper-II

  • The Syllabus includes Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International relations.
  • Analyzing the trend in the last five years of paper II of GS, you can easily understand that this paper is not just about the static portion; a majority of questions is from current affairs and even that question that looks like of static one is linked to current events of recent times.
  • For example; suppose a question is being asked about the power tussle between Lt Governor and CM of Delhi. So here you need to highlight the problem at present but at the same time, you have to state the significance of the post of Lt Governor post and CM briefly.
  • For Basics on Polity and Governance, NCERTs are the best source anytime, along with Laxmikanths's Polity. DD Basu's “Introduction To The Constitution Of India” has also been found helpful to many toppers
  • Other Sources: The 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission's report titled – Organizational Structure Of Government of India (13th Report) and Chahal Academy Magazine
  • The Social justice part should mainly be covered from current affairs from various sources such as PIB, The Hindu newspaper and Indian express, etc
  • International relations is all about current events, and you have to prepare it from a Newspaper and any standard magazine, whatever suits you. The Chahal Academy's Monthly magazine comprehensive provides coverage to all the relevant topics, here is the link below:
  • https://chahalacademy.com/current-affairs-magazine

General Studies Paper III

  • The Syllabus includes Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management.
  • Questions from Paper III are asked majorly from current affairs and if a candidate is actively following newspapers and making notes he can solve the paper easily provided his basic knowledge of each topic is clear. Therefore, the focus should be on clearing basics first by reading NCERTs and some standard reference books, the sources to prepare for the GS paper 3 are listed below:
  • Questions from science and technology are general in nature and mostly contain the application part of many latest technologies and their impact on society and many other questions which are from general science and directly drawn from current affairs. Every year only 3-4 questions are asked from S&T and some of the most important topics such as Biotechnology, Space & Technologies, Defence Technologies, Public Health, Nuclear Technologies: Energy, Cyber Security: Discussed in Internal Security, ICT: Latest Technologies: AI, CPS, AR and VR, Quantum Computing, 5G, etc. Any information related to the above topics becomes important.
  • For the Indian Economy, one can refer to Chahal Academy's Monthly magazine, current affairs, and some standard books such as Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh. Economic survey and Indian Budget released give out crucial information on the economy and hence are important sources.
  • In Internal Security, most of the questions are always asked from a few selected topics such as Terrorism- International and domestic, Left-wing extremism/Naxalism/Maoism, North East Insurgency, Border Management, Coastal Security, Organized Crimes, Cyber-crime and cyber-security, Regionalism and inter-state disputes, etc. Topic-wise preparation on the above-mentioned topics is sufficient enough for this section, keeping the current affairs in mind.
  • Biodiversity, Environment, and Disaster Management segment of GS Paper III- To cover the static part of this section, you can prefer NCERT Geography of 11th class, Biology of 12th class, IGNOU notes, Chahal Academy Notes, and ARC Report no. 3( Disaster Management). Besides, preparing current developments through newspapers and any standard current affairs magazine with mapping practice is advised.

General Studies Paper IV

The syllabus includes: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude

The questions asked in GS Paper IV are mainly to test candidates’ attitudes and approach towards problem-solving, on issues relating to integrity and probity in public life. The question paper consists of questions on theory and case studies to understand a candidate's approach to determine these aspects. The Focus areas: ethics, public service/ values, and integrity, attitude, aptitude for the civil services, emotional intelligence, the contribution of thinkers, honesty in public life, etc.

Paper IV is 25 percent of basic book knowledge and 75 percent of your understanding of the situation based on the basic books you have read and clarity of syllabus you have. Using 2nd ARC reports for this paper is highly recommended by toppers and experts.

For the first portion of this paper, you have to read some moral thinkers and their contributions and when you will solve a case study, you have to utilize that information for not only writing the good answer of that case study but you have to also develop your knowledge and understanding of values.

The most appropriate way to develop for this paper is to first understand each terminology given in the syllabus e.g. Empathy, sympathy, and the difference between Attitude and Aptitude., etc. 

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Essay Paper:

  • The Essay paper is not about your knowledge and disseminating that information on your answer. It is about the representation of your approach to the skill of pinning down your information in sequence manner supported by some facts and figures.
  • You can develop this art of representation and writing a good answer only by practicing it. So, make a good habit of writing one essay in a fortnight.

Optional Paper:

  • The optional papers carry a total weightage of 500 marks in the mains examination and the better you score in your optional, the better are your chances of selection.
  • Before choosing an optional a candidate should understand questions in the optional papers are of graduate-level and solving them requires in-depth knowledge and study of those subjects and hence it would consume an enormous amount of a student time of his preparation. Therefore, a candidate should choose that subject as optional which he finds interesting to read and can sit in for hours without getting bored.
  • Shortlisting some of the subjects, going through its syllabus and last 5 years question paper to understand the dynamics of question asking pattern must be done before jumping on to the most important decision of choosing an optional.

Compulsory Paper:

How to Prepare compulsory language paper?

As the compulsory paper is qualifying in nature so before the examination just practice some of the things like grammar and basic things like ways of answering and approach of writing. Solve previous year papers of the past 2-3 years. These things will help you to easily clear the qualifying exams.


The practice of using maps for locating places while preparing for current affairs is quite useful. In answer-writing of history, geography, disaster management, security in internal and border areas, etc, map using practice has proven results and is one of the most followed strategies of toppers.


The use of flowcharts and diagrams enhances the quality of an answer, helps in explaining more in less time, and is also an effective way to summarize the information contained in an answer.

Using easy-to-understand mind maps, diagrams, and flow charts are the things that will provide you an edge over other candidates as your answer will look more catchy and soothing to the examiner.

Many times when you run out of time in the examination hall and you still have a few questions to attempt you can move ahead by writing just a diagram of the flow chart so that an examiner may have an insight that you know the question.

Some Frequently Asked Questions About UPSC Mains Examination:

Q. Can a candidate write different papers for the Civil Service (Mains) Examination in different languages?

No, Either in English or in any one of the Eighth Schedule languages except the Qualifying Language papers Paper-A and Paper-B, which they have indicated at the time of filling up of their online application form for the Civil Service (Preliminary) Examination.

Q. What are the Cut-off Marks for the compulsory language Papers?

The minimum qualifying standards in each of the two Qualifying Papers i.e. English and Indian Languages is indicated in the Examination Rules, which is at present 25%.

Q. Should I write an answer in Bullet Point or Paragraph?

  • You can write in a paragraph as well, but the bullet point will be more appropriate as Bullet point reveals the work in a more natural way to the examiner and he may not have to find the eye-catching phrases in your copy
  • The bullet point is to the point in nature as compared to the paragraph approach of writing the answer.
  • Bullet points are easy to cover and you can cover the whole paper within the time limit.

Q. Should I attempt all 20 questions or write 17 to 18 good answers?

  • Your chance of success in the mains examination depends upon the number of questions you will attempt, remember that. So, your priority should be to attempt all questions, even if you know nothing about a particular question.
  • As the saying goes "It is better to have something than nothing". So, stick with this mantra and write all the answers, you will get something for that answer. But, you should remember that the quality of the answer should not be lowered to complete all answers.

Q. Should I use Quotes in answer writing?

  • Quotes give your answer a dynamic view; eye-catching phrases are always a good prospect for getting good marks in mains examination.
  • Too many unnecessary quotes can backfire as well so, use quotes but use them smartly.

Things to avoid in answer writing

  1. Reflecting a biased answer for the party:

    One of the most important things you should avoid is excessive criticism of government policies and also criticizing the person and its work.

    You should also refrain from writing the answer in a biased manner, as you are preparing for an administrative post that has to work behind the curtain. SO, your vested interest should not hamper the working for people and making chaos in administrative functioning.

  2. Altering the quotes:

    While quoting in mains answer writing don't quote in an altered manner. It means if know exactly the exact quotation then only you should use it, otherwise, these wrong quotes reflect a bad impression about a candidate. e.g. “The Earth has enough for everyone's need, but not enough for everyone's greed.”So, if you alter this quote and write like the Earth can serve everyone's need but not everyone's greed. These small mistakes are very drastic in marks marking schemes of things.

  3. STRATEGY for handling the IAS-UPSC MAINS EXAM

    While preparing for GS Mains, you will be also preparing for History, Geography, Public Administration, Political Science, Sociology, etc. It will help you in deciding your interest in a particular optional subject properly.

Rather than selecting an optional without knowing other subjects or without knowing your writing and presentation styles and thinking patterns, it is better to delay this decision. It will prove a more informed and rational decision afterward.

Preparations for the Civil Services Mains Exam should start along with those of the Preliminary exam. This is because there is much common ground for study, and there is little time for the mains exam if one waits for the results of the Preliminaries. It is a long haul and preparations should be done with persistence, over nine months to a year.