16 Apr 2020: The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
1) Private sector must be a wholehearted partner of government in fight against COVID-19
The country — indeed the world at large — is facing the century’s biggest crisis. Countries across the development spectrum are grappling(struggle to deal with or overcome) with an unprecedented(never done or known before) situation in which a viral illness, COVID-19, has spiralled into a global pandemic in less than 90 days, bringing most of the world to a standstill(halt).
The government has responded quickly, decisively and comprehensively, putting in place a strong and effective whole-of-government approach. However, as the epidemic progresses, this may not suffice(sufficient). We will need a whole-of-society response.
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR:
According to the WHO, a critical lesson from the 2014-16 West African Ebola epidemic was that both the public and private sector need to work in tandem(a group of two people or machines working together) in responding to large-scale epidemics. In the COVID-19 response in India, the private sector — which includes the for-profit and not-for-profit segments — has to play an even more important role, as it is the dominant provider of health services in the country.
The NSSO 71st round data on social consumption of health show that private hospitals, clinics and nursing homes provide over 70 per cent of healthcare. Data on the nearly 1 crore treatments received under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY) corroborate(confirm or give support to) this finding, showing that over half of all treatments are being availed of from private providers, accounting for over 60 per cent of total disbursements(t he payment of money from a fund).
COVID 19 TESTING:
Currently, much of COVID-19 testing and treatment is being done in public facilities. As the epidemic progresses, both these services will need to be expanded several-fold and the private sector will need to step in.
Creating a large and accessible testing infrastructure is the first weapon in the armoury.
Countries like South Korea, Singapore, Germany and Japan have been successful at controlling the spread of COVDID-19 and reducing mortality through early detection and quick containment. This has been possible only through widespread testing. India has opened testing up to private labs. Testing has been included under the AB PM-JAY as well. We need to substantially expand testing capacity. This cannot happen without the active participation of the private sector.
Second, as the government deepens its containment efforts, the country will need to rapidly surge the numbers of quarantine units, isolation wards and ICU beds in COVID-19-only hospitals. It will also need to ensure increased and continued supply of essential medical products — from testing kits, masks and other PPEs to oxygen and ventilators.
According to a recent ICMR study, around five per cent of those infected will need intensive care and half of those in intensive care units will need mechanical ventilation. These projections translate into large numbers that considerably exceed the capacity of the government health system.
PRIVATE HEALTH SECTOR SHOULD BE THE CORE OF NATIONAL HEALTH EFFORTS:
Private hospitals with adequate(sufficient) infrastructure will need to convert into COVID-19-only hospitals. This process will, of course, have to be steered(moving on) by the government through a clear policy framework of designated hospitals, reporting and referral systems and an appropriate payment system. The experience of purchasing healthcare services through implementation of the AB PM-JAY can provide the template(model) and know-how to work in partnership with the private sector.
Some private hospitals can help in managing the treatment of non-COVID-19 patients. With many government facilities being converted into COVID-19-only hospitals, a large number of non-COVID-19 patients will need facilities and providers to take care of their other urgent, critical or continuing healthcare needs.
Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY):
The AB PM-JAY has started a process to bring on board more hospitals to respond to such needs. It is assisting state governments in temporarily empanelling(enlist or enrol) additional health facilities to provide emergency care and treatment for other serious illnesses to all citizens, particularly the poor and vulnerable.
States like Madhya Pradesh and Punjab are leading this endeavour to strengthen their medical infrastructure through private sector partnerships and nimble(quick and light in movement or action) purchasing models.
KEEPING HEALTHCARE WORKERS SAFE:
Third, as more private providers join this fight, a major concern that will arise is keeping healthcare workers from becoming infected. In addition to being at a high risk of contracting the virus, healthcare workers are also potential carriers. Ensuring their protection is of paramount (supreme) importance.
Besides, companies manufacturing essential medical products such as ventilators, masks and face shields, clinical gloves, hand-rub, and sterilisation equipment will need to crank up their production. Direct support from banks may be needed to keep production and supply chains going.
ECOSYSTEM THAT DRIVES THE HEALTH SYSTEM:
Fourth, the private sector will need to vigorously(strongly) support the large ecosystem that drives the health system, as the lockdown and ongoing epidemic restrict movement and normal economic activities. Activities such as the production of essential drugs and medical products, logistics to maintain smooth supply, transportation of health workers, and delivery of food and other essential items will need to not only continue but also accelerate. Support for community activities such as night shelters and community kitchens will need to be strengthened.
Finally, an adequate stage-wise response to the pandemic and its economic, social and political aftermath will require the rapid filling of the many knowledge gaps. Government, private and not-for-profit research institutions need to collaborate (work jointly on an activity or project) to understand the nature of transmission of the virus, the factors that slow its spread, the most at-risk communities, or the optimal quarantine period.
The fight against COVID-19 is not a race to a hilltop. It involves the continuous management of an evolving public health crisis that threatens to spawn economic and social crises. These multiple dimensions will require a whole-of-society approach that goes beyond the government alone.
Consider this as an appeal to all private and charitable healthcare institutions to join this effort. This is the time to play our individual and collective roles in the fight against COVID-19.
2) Only WHO
In the past three decades, the WHO has helped nations frame strategies during outbreaks such as Zika, Ebola and HIV/AIDS.
At a time when the world is fighting its worst pandemic in decades, its premier health agency i.e WHO has, unfortunately, been caught in the unfortunate battle between its two leading powers (USA and China).
USA’s SLASH OF FUNDS:
After fulminating(protesting) against the WHO for weeks for being “Beijing(China’s capital)-centric” and accusing(blaming) it of failing to do enough to stop the novel coronavirus from spreading after it first surfaced in China, US President Donald Trump announced, on Tuesday, that he is cutting off funds to the global health body. “Funding would be on hold for 60 to 90 days pending a review of the WHO’s warnings about the coronavirus and China,” he said. The White House(USA) has said that the US funds are likely to go to other international health outfits.
ROLE OF WHO:
No other health agency, however, can match the WHO in reach — and credibility. The WHO’s recommendations are not set in stone. Indeed, as this paper reported last week, India has not followed the global health agency’s advice on combating the coronavirus to the hilt — and rightly so. Many of the WHO’s actions are also not above criticism. But the global agency’s decades-long work in low and middle-income countries and its robust(solid) understanding of a variety of cultural contexts mean that an empowered WHO holds the key to protecting the interests of the poor and most vulnerable countries during the pandemic.
CONTRIBUTION OF WHO:
The WHO has guided the immunisation programmes in several countries, including India; it has been at the forefront of the fight against several diseases, with notable successes such as eradicating smallpox globally and eliminating polio in several parts of the world; it has helped draw up agendas on mental health and persuaded its members to sign landmark conventions on tobacco-control.
In the past three decades, the WHO has helped nations frame strategies during outbreaks such as Zika, Ebola and HIV/AIDS. The agency’s role in developing a vaccine against Ebola, in fact, illuminates(highlights) one of its key advantages – no other health outfit can bring together scientists, industry, regulators and governments during a public health emergency as rapidly as the WHO.
In a globalised world, pathogens such as viruses and bacteria cannot be contained within national borders. But the coronavirus pandemic seems to have exacerbated(worsened) isolationist(cutting off from globalisation) tendencies in the world. Information sharing between nations has not always been adequate and countries have often resorted to unfair trade practices with respect to scarce resources such as personal protection equipment.
In such a situation, the WHO has often been the sobering voice, calling for international solidarity. Even as they need to question it sometimes, nations need to add their weight to the global health agency’s voice – not undermine it in a critical time.
No other agency can match it for reach and credibility. It can be questioned, must not be undermined