30 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.Apt judicial reminder in era of over-criminalisation. 2.International cooperation is a must in combating new modes of terror attacks. 3.New layers of censorship are a threat to the existing space for public discourse. 4.Indians value religious freedom and tolerance but not great at integration, finds Pew survey. 5.The flash flood on February 7 in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, that claimed at least 72 and caused at least 200 to be missing or dead was due to large mass of snow, ice and rock avalanche along with a hanging mass of rock crashing into the Raunthi Garh valley floor. 6.Ahead of a critical OPEC meeting on July 1, India’s Petroleum and Natural Gas Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said he is persuading oil exporting countries to moderate surging oil prices and warned that high prices would push the country to tap alternative petroleum import sources such as Iran. 7.SC sets July 31 date for one ration card, calls migrant portal delay unpardonable; The court also pulled up the Centre for the delay in setting up a national web portal to register migrant and unorganised workers, calling this“lackadaisical” and “unpardonable”. 8.Government gives Moderna emergency use nod, may first come in only as donations; While the government said details on the quantity of doses to be imported to India by Cipla are still under consideration, The Indian Express has learnt that the vaccine is initially expected to be provided to India in limited quantities — as donations by the US drug maker. 9.Jaishankar flags vaccine equity at G-20 meeting 10.Discovery of a new source of gravitational waves: Collisions between Neutron Star and Black Hole; LIGO spots the first hybrid stellar collision. 11.A kind of relief; Centre leans heavily on credit guarantees to aid the economy. Direct demand side support remains minimal. 12.Film fraternity’s fears over Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill, 2021 are well grounded. Centre must address them. 13.The future of learning in India is ed-tech; Amitabh Kant writes: The pandemic-induced learning crisis and the Fourth Industrial Revolution have made it necessary to reimagine education and align it with the unprecedented technological transformation. 14.NITI Aayog Releases Report on Not-for-Profit Hospital Model in India; Helped by faster pace of credit growth, the share of Indian private banks in total credit rose to 36.5% in the financial year ended March 2021 (FY21) from 35.4% a year ago. It moots 100% I-T exemption for donations to not-for-profit hospitals. 15.The Competition Commission of India (CCI), by ordering a probe into big tech giants such as Google, Amazon, WhatsApp’s new privacy policy, and also sectors such as automobiles, aims to control monopolistic,?restrictive,?exploitative?and?exclusionary trade practices. 16.New farm laws can create $30-35 bn value pool in agri ecosystem by 2025: Bain; According to the Bain report, firms can save 5 to 10 per cent or more on procurement costs of food items through a concerted national strategy.


29 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.An urgent review of the Kedar Nath judgment is necessary as ‘sedition’ violates the basic right of speech and expression 2.Govt. unveils ?6.28 lakh cr stimulus post second COVID wave 3.The trend of imputing seditious design to criticism of the government is disturbing 4.In the backdrop of an economic contraction, it is prudent to revisit the aggressive privatisation of public enterprises 5.The Government should require Twitter to follow rules, but not be vindictive for political reasons 6.DRDO successfully tests new generation nuclear capable missile Agni-P 7.Small civilian drones pose significant threat, say officials 8.Chief Economic Adviser Krishnamurthy Subramanian has expressed confidence that the ?1.75-lakh crore disinvestment target of this fiscal will be achieved, with a good part coming from the proposed IPO of insurance behemoth LIC and privatisation of Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL). 9.How independent are Independent Directors of PSUs? Half from BJP; Maharatna, navratna, mini-ratnas -- of 172 Independent Directors on 98 PSU boards, as many as 86 have ties to ruling party, an investigation shows. 10.Govt decides: Twitter no longer enjoys ‘safe harbour’ protection; The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has arrived at this view after consultations with legal experts and other departments of the government over the last several days. 11.Maturity & caution; Drone attack in Jammu is reminder that military must be equipped better. But work of careful diplomacy must continue. 12.Delta and Delta Plus Variants: Frequently Asked Questions 13.Centre reinforces usage of GeM portal 14.E-commerce companies to write to govt against draft rules


28 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.Hit by India’s vaccine export ban, Bhutan seeks help. 2.Despite judicial verdicts, India’s sexual minorities face discrimination in employment, health issues and personal rights. 3.High inflation, decline in savings, make it a tough call for Govt. to reduce rates on small savings schemes, say economists 4.Drones are now a favoured terror toolUndetected by radars, they are used to smuggle drugs and weapons and conduct aerial surveillance 5.Nuclear site images won’t be shared with IAEA: Iran 6.Pakistan stays on FATF list, India must push for justice in cross-border terror attacks 7.Blast at IAF base in Jammu: Two drones dropped 2 kg ‘high grade’ IEDs from 100 m height, flew back ???????8.Focused on Pakistan rather than China, India in Tier 3 as cyberpower: Report; The report said that despite the geo-strategic instability of its region and a keen awareness of the cyber threat it faces, India has made only “modest progress” in developing its policy and doctrine for cyberspace security. 9.India-Japan friendship more relevant for global stability in the era of Covid: PM;  Modi said when many global challenges are facing us, it is the need of the hour that the relationship between the two countries is further strengthened. 10.Will food become costlier? What we learn from the study of diets of previous wars and pandemics. They can teach us about food-waste management and save us from a food crisis 11.Explained: How to link your passport with your Covid-19 vaccine certificate 12.Explained: What are DMCA notices? What is the DMCA and how does it ensure implementation of the WIPO treaties? Who can generate a DMCA notice and how are they sent to companies or websites? 13.INS TABAR DEPLOYED TO PARTICIPATE IN JOINT EXERCISES WITH FRIENDLY NAVIES IN AFRICA AND EUROPE 14.IT players to telco giants, a clutch of Indian firms gunning for 5G market; A clutch of Indian companies is readying to make products and solutions for state-of-the-art telecom networks in India and abroad. 15.What bank deposits data tells us about Covid disruption; Deposits grew fast in the period when consumption got hit due to restrictions and precautionary behaviour. 16.Debt at 58.8% of GDP as economy shrinks; India’s debt to GDP ratio is now at a 15-year high


26 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.Pakistan to remain on FATF grey list.  Pakistan was put on the grey list by the Paris-based FATF in June 2018, and the country has been struggling to come out of it. 2.Restoration of Statehood should be at the start of the revival of the democratic process in J&K 3.Relevant advice for health care-givers, mothers-to-be 4.Uttar Pradesh ranked best State under Smart Cities Mission. 5.Information and Broadcasting Ministry Joint Secretary Vikram Sahay said on Friday that over 1,500 publishers had so far submitted information in the formats prescribed under the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021. 6.DRDO tests enhanced range Pinaka and 122 mm rockets 7.Detailed Project reports of LIDAR survey of forest areas in 10 states for water and fodder augmentation released. 8.Aircraft carrier built in India will be ready next year, says Rajnath Singh. The IAC has been under construction at the Cochin Shipyard for over a decade. Singh visited the site on Friday to review its progress. 9.Build on beginning: Centre and J&K leaders, Centre more than J&K leaders, must ensure Thursday’s meeting leads to structured engagement 10.Dowry deaths reveal the true picture of gender relations in Kerala. It is important to equip girls to take a stand against dowry and marriage systems, as well as question women’s subordination at large. .Covid test for Rs 50 launched by IIT Delhi. “IIT Delhi disrupted the RT-PCR market with a Rs 399 probe-free RT PCR kit launched in July 2020. Over 8 million high quality PPE kits are supplied so far, using the technology developed at IIT Delhi,” IIT-D Director V Ramgopal Rao said in a Facebook post. 12.Explained: How shutting parks during the rainy season helps tigers 13.RBI sets rules for appointment of MDs, WTDs of urban cooperative banks 14.A citizen’s group formed to protect Mumbai’s ecology has curated a digital art gallery depicting the mangrove ecosystem


25 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.Govts should unlock using good evidence on how to avert another COVID-19 wave 2.Reviving Rural economy: The Government needs to reverse its neglect and policy missteps as key indicators show the sector has resilience 3.Re energising India's Africa Policy: New Delhi needs to make new commitments, developing and deepening links in health, space and digital technologies 4.The felling of several iconic pine trees for widening a road in Meghalaya capital Shillong has triggered outrage, forcing the State government to intervene. 5.RBI sets norms for NBFC dividend distribution 6.No physics, math for engg entry: Niti red flag in key meeting; AICTE will wait for panel to submit report on courses that will offer flexibility 7.China’s troop amassing, bids to alter status quo behind standoff: India; India's comments on the border row came a day after China said its military deployment in the region is a normal defence arrangement aimed at “preventing and responding” to “encroachment and threat” on Chinese territory by “relevant country”. 8.A depleted reserve; Prospects of households drawing down their savings to boost consumption in near future appear dim 9.Shifts in Afghanistan’s power matrix and out-of-sight interactions between India and Pakistan provide the context to the dialogue between PM Modi and J&K’s mainstream leadership 10.During the Covid-19 pandemic, the Integrated Command and Control Centres, which are already operational in more than 50 of the 100 smart cities, played a pivotal role in providing real-time information to enable health workers and city administrators in tracking the virus spread and in relief and rehabilitation work. 11.Better GST mop-up likely: In 20 days, June e-way bills rise 34% over month ago; In value terms, e-way bills generated in the first 20 days were worth Rs 10.58 lakh crore in June as against Rs 8.79 lakh crore worth of e-way bills in the first 20 days of May, government data showed. 12.Claims throw light on insurance status: Only 14% of Covid deaths had cover 13.PM interacts with participants of Toycathon-2021; Calls for better standing in ‘Toyoconomy’; Underlines the importance of toy sector in taking development and growth to the neediest segments 14.India presses OPEC for affordable oil, phasing out of production cuts; As a result, OPEC's share in India's oil imports has dropped to about 60% in May from 74% in the previous month. 15.Coronavirus Delta Plus variant: Time to worry? 16.Save coral islands from disaster, say scientists; They believe the LDAR would require the use of a large amount of land that would endanger the ecology of the islands.


24 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.ED gives banks ?9,371 crore assets seized from Vijay Mallya, Nirav Modi, Mehul Choksi 2.The Government’s J&K moves may be part of a more complex regional game involving India’s security interests. 3.There needs to be a feminist approach to technology to solve the social impacts of the South Asian COVID-19 crisis 4.Blended teaching mode: A recent circular by the University Grants Commission (UGC) proposes that all higher educational institutions (HEI) teach 40% of any course online and the rest 60% offline.  5.Deployment at border with China: India says development projects should be transparent, environment friendly 6.‘Climate crisis to hit sooner than feared’. 7.Household financial savings were 10.4% of GDP in the second quarter ended September of 2020-21 and 21 per cent in the June quarter. 8.Bhutan’s Tax Inspectors Without Borders (TIWB) programme launched in partnership with India. 9.NTPC anchors two day BRICS Green Hydrogen Summit 10.New IT Rules breach law and gag free speech: 13 key news media firms move Madras HC 11.It’s time for RBI to turn its attention to inflation. Dharmakirti Joshi, Pankhuri Tandon write: So far, it has not responded to high inflation. But recent trends will persuade it to turn focus back on prices. 12.Experts Explain: Hurdles in class action. Incidents such as the recent ONGC barge disaster underline the absence of effective class action suits in India. Tougher action on negligence and liability is vital if India is to improve its ease-of-doing-business rankings. 13.Herd immunity is both mystical and mythical: NTAGI chairman N K Arora. 14.Centre to spend extra Rs 93,868 crore for running PMGKAY-3 in FY22. Cabinet approves extra spending of Rs 67,266.44 crore for five months; earlier extra amount of Rs 26,602 crore was estimated for May and June, 2021. 15.Passex or Passage exercise: India, US kick off mega wargame in Indian Ocean with eye on China. 16.How India's e-commerce rules have spawned confusion. 17.With donations worth $102.4 billion, India’s pioneer industrialist and Tata Group founder Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata is the world’s biggest philanthropist of the last century, much ahead of Bill and Melinda Gates, who came in second


23 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.With sedition cases rising, often solely based on word usage, people need to have a political and legal defence. 2.The threat of a third wave and new variants make speedy, complete inoculation a priority 3.Overregulation risks retarding growth and job creation in the e-commerce sector 4.Four theatre command likely to be raised by year end:  It’ll be the biggest reorganisation of armed forces since Independence 5.A Rubber Board research farm on the outskirts of Guwahati now sports the world’s first genetically modified (GM) rubber plant tailored for the climatic conditions in the Northeast. 6.Explainer: Beijing doubles down on rooting out crypto in China 7.One dose 82% effective in preventing death, 2 doses 95% effective: ICMR-NIE study 8.Why does China consistently beat India on soft power? Kanti Bajpai writes: Classical India may stand alongside classical China in the regard it garners, but contemporary India has been left behind. Until we recognise that, we can’t do much about it. 9.farmers’ protest began a year ago. How has it lasted this long? Pramod Kumar writes: The class which has ruled Punjab since the mid-’60s has joined this protest. With an abundance of human and material resources at its disposal, it can provide sustainability to the movement 10.Speaking: Alternatives to RBI printing money for a fresh Covid relief package. Can the government impose a wealth tax or a tax on inheritance to fund a fresh stimulus package for the poor? 11.???????How judges recuse from cases, and why. When there is a conflict of interest, a judge can withdraw from hearing a case to prevent creating a perception that she carried a bias while deciding the case. 12.focus to aid pvt cos gain in dairy sector’. The share of private players in the dairy sector, which was 45% by financial year (FY) 2019-20 to likely to further expand over the next five years. 13.INDIAN NAVY - US NAVY: CARRIER STRIKE GROUP PASSAGE EXERCISE 14.New rules for e-commerce companies likely to raise compliance burden. The consumer affairs ministry proposed changes to Consumer Protection Rules, 2020 15.Covid-19 pandemic: Delta-plus now a variant of concern, says govt. The ministry has issued an advisory to these states to take more focused and effective public health response measures. 16.Legalizing same-sex marriages is abysmally overdue


22 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.SC seeks details of compensation paid to Covid-19 victims; reserves judgement on ex-gratia 2.Bt Cotton adoption in Punjab has resulted in net economic, environmental benefits: Study 3.This is ‘abject poverty’, and if the economy is to be repaired, the number of the poor has to be meticulously counted 4.A perpetual war: On dilemmas of ending U.S's 'forever war' in Afghanistan 5.If States directly collect more tax, they will become less dependent on the Central government 6.Decriminalizing Suicide: It is time for India to repeal Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code or strike it down 7.EU-INDIA JOINT NAVAL EXERCISE 8.Prime Minister announces key initiatives on the occasion of 7th International Day of Yoga (IDY) 9.Women as temple priests: An idea whose time has come. Pratap Bhanu Mehta writes: Not just social engineering, there are good religious grounds for opening all ritual functions to women. The rest of India must follow Tamil Nadu’s example 10.Understanding Pakistan’s Kashmir conundrum. C Raja Mohan writes: In the past, it kept India off-balance on Kashmir. It is now Pakistan's turn to face an ‘unpredictable’ India. 11.Delimitation in Jammu and Kashmir: how, why. For Assembly elections to be held in the new UT, delimitation of seats will be necessary. With the Centre having called for a meeting, a look at how delimitation is carried out, and the status of the exercise in Jammu and Kashmir. 12.Explained: What govt proposes to change in film certification. The Centre has released the draft Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill 2021. What does it propose to change, and why is it significant? 13.China's realpolitik lesson to India 14.Airtel announces partnership with Tata group for 5G network solutions. 15.What the new gold hallmarking rules mean for you 16.Government tightens IT Rules:


21 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Coronavirus | Massive distribution of ex gratia will strain finances, says Centre 2. Russia’s uncritical advocacy of China’s global vision is what seems to be leaving India quite confounded 3. The keel of the second frigate, of additional Krivak class stealth ships, being built with technology transfer from Russia by the Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 4. A major temple in Assam has signed a memorandum of understanding with two green NGOs, the Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden and the Kamrup district administration for long-term conservation of the rare freshwater black softshell turtle (Nilssonia nigricans). 5. The final results of Ganga Quest 2021, an online quiz contest, were announced today on occasion of Ganga Dussehra. Ganga Quest is an online quiz contest &an educational program to sensitize children and youth on Riven Ganga& other rivers of India and the environment.6. India set to organise two day summit on Green Hydrogen Initiatives involving BRICS nations 6. India set to organise two day summit on Green Hydrogen Initiatives involving BRICS nations 7. 22nd June: International Day of Yoga 8. NIXI will provide a personalized e-mail with 10GB space on demand to every .IN user  9. Researchers find Therapeutic Effects of Yoga in Depression 10. Gupkar ‘gang’ to PM meeting: Delhi push to J&K political process amid trust deficit 11. China has become a maritime power. It’s time India caught up. Arun Prakash writes: Naval power will play a decisive role in India-China rivalry. But India needs greater vision, realistic targets and proper implementation to achieve its maritime goals. 12. Removing vaccine hesitancy will require sustained engagement at community level. Political leaders must take on responsibility. 13. It’s time to look at commodities like rice and sugar from a sustainability perspective. Water and energy consumption should be factored in the export strategies 14. Explained: Monoclonal antibodies & Covid: Trials in the UK have found a monoclonal antibody cocktail effective in some patients with severe Covid-19. What is this treatment, how does it compare with plasma therapy, and how much promise does it hold? 15. Second wave of Covid-19 pandemic delays work under new OALP blocks 16. The frenetic accumulation of foreign exchange may check the strengthening of the local currency and fuel Indian exports in the short term


19 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1.Twitter grilled by MPs over violating new IT Rules 2.Sports University in India: Sportsmen to be conferred degrees based on their performance: Minister 3.Policy approaches must strike a balance between the achievement of health goals and exigencies of supply constraints 4.A delay in the provision of marriage rights to same-sex couples would fall foul of constitutional guarantees, judgments. 5.The unprecedented Class 12 evaluation system must be an open book to inspire confidence 6.Quality Council of India (QCI) launches Indian Certification of Medical Devices (ICMED) Plus Scheme; 7.ALL-INDIA CONSUMER PRICE INDEX NUMBERS FOR AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL LABOURERS – MAY, 2021 8.Delhi HC’s order surprising, need to examine reading of UAPA, says SC 9.Explained: Summer rain stocks dams. 10.Managing tantrum: RBI needs to be watchful of implications of withdrawal of accommodative policies by the US central bank. 11.What the G7 message on net-zero emissions means for India. India, which has huge developmental needs and global high-table aspirations that require carbon and policy spaces, must protect its interests. 12.REITs reduce borrowing costs by about 200 basis points or more in FY21 13.Vaccination cuts chances of hospitalisation by 75-80%, says Centre. 14.India’s IT rules do not conform with international human rights: UN Special Rapporteurs.


18 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. A place for disruptive technology in India’s health sector. Artificial intelligence, autonomous systems and data analytics have a defining role to play in shaping the medical sector. 2. The Delhi court ruling is a way forward in finding a balance between civil rights and the imperatives of anti-terror laws. 3. In any serious attempt at economic recovery, the focus must be on food supply and not money supply. 4. Reinforcing the commitment of the Modi Government to provide safe and secure digital payments eco-system, Union Home Ministry under leadership of Home Minister Shri Amit Shah has operationalised the national Helpline 155260 and Reporting Platform for preventing financial loss due to cyber fraud. 5. 14 States/Union Territories achieved 100% level of birth registrations: report 6. Chinese astronauts dock with space station. 7. Government Sets target of Reducing Road Accident Deaths by 50% by Year 2024. 8. Government releases Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas of India 9. Marks of Classes 10 and 11 will count in Class 12, results out by July 31. According to the schedule submitted by the Board in the SC, schools will have to finalise the results and upload marks on the Board’s link by July 15, after which CBSE will declare the results on July 31. 10. Has the blackbox of UAPA finally been opened? Pratap Bhanu Mehta writes: Bail order for Asif Tanha, Natasha Narwal and Devangana Kalita is a welcome effort to prevent our civil liberties from being swallowed up by the black hole of state power. 11. Explained: Federal Reserve signals and Indian markets. The US Federal Reserve has hinted at the possibility of two rate hikes by 2023, leading to a fall in market indices. While inflation is a concern in India, and it remains to be seen how the RBI responds, market participants are not too worried about inflation if it comes alongside an economic rebound. 12. Explained: The role of animal serum in making of vaccines. Vaccines like the one made by Bharat Biotech use the disease-causing virus itself to trigger an immune response in human beings. 13. Made in India tag: Govt slaps 148 notices on e-commerce firms in 3 months. Govt collects Rs 34 lakh over 3 months for violation of norms. 14. India maintains 43rd rank on IMD's World Competitiveness Index. The 64-nation list was led by Switzerland 15. US, EU forge closer ties on emerging technologies to counter Russia and China.


17 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. ‘Record’ FDI inflows, yes, cause for celebration, no. The inflows during 2020-21 have not been in sync with the Government’s priorities for economic recovery 2. HC bail orders are an indictment of attempt to portray Delhi protests as terrorist acts 3. As Indian homes will be a key site where future cooling demand will play out, awareness of energy efficiency is crucial 4. India is drifting rapidly towards a state of ignorance even as it aims for development 5. India to launch deep ocean mission 6. Biden, Putin hold ‘great power’ summit 7. ‘India to have 330 mn 5G connections by 2026’ 8. Net Direct Tax Collections For Financial Year 2021-22 Jump 100% 9. IIT Delhi turns transport research programme started by Prof Dinesh Mohan into full-fledged centre 10. Even as growth concerns remain, price pressures limit RBI’s options. It must assess when to pivot to policy normalisation 11. Explained: What is hallmarking of gold jewellery, and why has it been made mandatory from today 12. IIT Bombay Hosts Conference of BRICS Network Universities as part of 13th BRICS Summit 13. ‘Government Actively Working to Support E-Mobility by Giving Several Incentives’ 14. Govt may tighten 'country of origin' norms for e-commerce players 15. Govt eyes dividend windfall from PSUs. Centre mops up ?26,104 crore dividend from 23 PSUs in FY21. PSUs’ share of profits rose from 18% in FY18 to 28% in FY21, after consistently declining from 39% in FY11 16. A carbon tax imposes concentrated costs for diffuse benefits and resolving this could lend such taxation political viability.


16 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Afghanistan: America’s mistakes in the ‘forever war’ 2. Emergent action is needed to rein in inflation as people face income losses, medical costs 3. The criminal justice system must observe the basics of a proper investigation, judicial fairness, and the survivor’s rights 4. Needed: full disclosure on electoral bondsThe Supreme Court’s suggestion to ‘match the following’ on political donations is impractical and incorrect. 5. The fact that cryptocurrency has no legal classification should not be the impetus to prohibit its use in India. 6. The Central government has allocated 78,000 tonnes of rice procured for food security purposes to be diverted to ethanol production instead this year, at a subsidised rate of ?20 a kg. Food Secretary, however, emphasises that maize will form the primary feedstock for grain-based ethanol production instead.   7. Taiwan reports ‘largest’ incursion by Chinese forces 8. India’s benchmark 10-year bond yield closed at its highest level in more than six weeks while the rupee ended at a one-month low on the back of a larger-than-expected surge in retail inflation. 9. In bid to stifle dissent, state blurs line between right to protest, terrorism: Delhi High Court 10. Delhi HC calls out misuse of UAPA, raises bar for State to slap terror tag 11. Moral high court: Delhi HC’s bail order speaks directly and wisely to fundamental concerns. Weaponising terror law is attack on democracy. 12. Government must intervene, formulate policy for children orphaned by Covid; In the absence of a place to stay or a support system, many orphan children end up making wrong choices, or are drawn into a path that leads to poverty and worse. 13. Explained: Why the southwest monsoon is early; The monsoon hit the Kerala coast two days behind schedule, but has already covered two-thirds of the country. What explains its progress so far, and what can be expected in terms of rainfall and agriculture? 14. Twitter may ‘lose’ safe harbour protection as govt says it ‘failed’ to fill key positions; As of June 15, Twitter remained the only platform among significant social media intermediaries to not have appointed the required executives in those roles despite reminders from the government. 15. Prosperity Report: ‘Lockdown curbs hit GDP, but fail to dent financial wealth’; Growth in prosperity and wealth likely to expand in five years, a BCG report said. 16. Ethanol distillation capacities to double by 2025 and achieve 20 % blending target:- Secretary, Department of Food, Public Distribution 17. Government of India's NAFED launches Fortified Rice Bran Oil to Boost Healthy Living 18. INDIAN ARMY CONDUCTS RAIL TRIALS ON DEDICATED FREIGHT CORRIDOR (DFC) 19. OVL-led consortium asks Iran for 30% share in Farzad B discovery 20. Covid-19 vaccine Covaxin at Rs 150 not sustainable: Bharat Biotech 21. Inflation may obstruct RBI’s focus on growth; The Reserve Bank panel may opt for a wait-and-watch policy at next meet. 22. The economic implications of China’s demographic transition


15 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. G7 accommodates Indian stand on Internet curbs 2. More than a year after a probe into a filovirus study of bats in Nagaland by the Bangalore-based National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), the government has concluded that there had been “concerning lapses” in the conduct and protocols followed for the study 3. The G-7 needs to be more open and less exclusive in an increasingly interlinked world 4. China is now in a different league, competing with the U.S., and New Delhi faces the task of living with an uneasy calm 5. Saturday’s announcement by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh on archiving, declassifying and compiling of war histories is a long overdue initiative that signals that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is at last willing to shed its shroud of confidentiality over happenings long gone by.  6. Moving the collections in the National Archives annexe needs careful planning and execution. 7. Pushed by rising fuel and food prices, retail inflation breaches 6% comfort zone of RBI 8. Complete cancellation of exams is unfortunate. Let’s not find ourselves in same situation next year 9. Delhi must review its China narrative, craft clear-eyed strategic policies 10. India will achieve land degradation neutrality by 2030, says Prime Minister Narendra Modi 11. How the pandemic is widening inequalities among nations 12. E-commercecould grab a larger share of retail trade and possibly overtake organized trade for consumer packaged goods with consumers’ growing preference for online shopping, industry estimates and analysis suggest. 13. Monson covers almost two-thirds of India 15 days in advance: IMD; A quick progress of the south-west monsoon should spur planting of kharif crops such as paddy, soybean, pulses, and cotton, and thus boost their yields. 14. Early signs of recovery in rural India; Betw­een March and May, consumer sentiments in rural India fell more than twice as much as in urban India


14 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Fight against authoritarianism, extremism, says PM Modi at G7 meet 2. A year since the violent clash between the Armies of India and China in the Galwan Valley in eastern Ladakh, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has built additional accommodation in the depth areas along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) on its side and is preparing for the long haul. 3. The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience 4. Planning for a biosecure future 5.The act of delegitimising professional journalism undermines news media’s status as the fourth estate. 6. Union Home Ministry order inviting citizenship applications faces Supreme Court challenge 7. Myan8. Rare earth metals at the heart of China-U.S. rivalrymar’s anti-junta protesters wear black flag, make #Black4Rohingya trending; A rare solidarity for Rohingya 8. Rare earth metals at the heart of China-U.S. rivalry 9. States/UTs to record COVID-19 deaths as per ‘Guidance for appropriate recording of COVID-19 related deaths in India’ issued by ICMR 10. Banks' pricing of micro-finance loans may soon be linked to MCLR 11. India gets wide support on TRIPS waiver for Covid-19 vaccines at G-7 meet 12. Why India is trying to facilitate semi-conductor manufacturing 13. RBI explores avenues to park reserves; An approval of the plan will mark a shift from the RBI’s current strategy of investing only in gold and sovereign debt, the two said, seeking anonymity. 14. India signs joint statement at G-7 for freedom of expression: ‘Internet curbs threat to democracy 15. Monsoon covers 80% of India in 10 days, onset in Delhi soon 16. In pandemic, 4 food records 17. Tweaking the tax


12 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Bru rehabilitation in Tripura hits NGT hurdle 2. Measuring excess deaths is the best possible way to estimate the count of COVID-19 deaths 3. Refocused vaccination camps are possible. Local planning will need to go hand-in-hand with equitable plans at the national and global levels 4. Coastal Maharashtra sits in the pathway of extreme monsoon weather events, which are forecast to increase in frequency due to ongoing warming of the Arabian Sea.  5. Supreme Court unhappy with slow migrant workers’ database work 6. France backs India, asks G-7 to lift export curbs on vaccine materials; India, and in particular the Serum Institute of India, was blocked in its production by restrictions on the export of ingredients necessary for the production of these vaccines which came from some G-7 economies.” 7. SC questions delay in creating unorganised workers’ database; The government said the National Informatics Centre had taken over the project and it will be done in three to four months. 8. Can the G-7’s ‘Cornwall Consensus’ give new direction to globalisation? Pratap Bhanu Mehta writes: If the G-7 wants to truly exercise more leadership, it will have to convince the world that all its new principles are not simply ruses to serve only the interests of the developed world. 9. Fuelled by rising currency assets, forex reserves race past $600 bn; The reserves surged to a record $605.008 billion in the reporting week, helped by a rise in foreign currency assets (FCA), a major component of the overall reserves, as per weekly data by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). 10. G7 to pledge 1 billion coronavirus vaccine shots for poorer countries 11. Digital rights outfits call upon Indian govt to roll back IT Rules; Coalition of 14 such outfits is also asking corporations to step up against intrusion by Indian authorities into the rights of millions of people who use their services everyday 12. UNDP Report Lauds Aspirational Districts Programme, Recommends Replication in Other Parts of the World.


11 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. CHIME telescope yields unprecedented results 2. In Nagaland, anti-graft group forms political party 3. Government agencies can analyse WhatsApp chats, Narcotics Control Bureau tells Punjab and Haryana High Court 4. ‘Real estate hit worse by second wave than first’ 5. Education Ministry releases AISHE report 2019-20, number of PhDs increased by 60% in last five years. The report revealed that the number of Institutes of National Importance (INIs) have increased from 75 in 2015 to 135 in 2020. 6. Over 40% vacancies in judges’ posts in 11 HCs, Patna tops list. With just 20 judges against a sanctioned strength of 53, the Patna High Court tops the list with 62 per cent vacancies as of June 1, according to the Ministry of Law and Justice data. 7. The beaten track; Encouraging more paddy-wheat production makes little economic sense. MSP increase is politically directed 8. Does wider spacing of vaccine doses really work against the D variant of SARS-CoV-2? 9. Big spender: What Centre must do to meet the economic challenges following Covid second wave 10. How India can tackle its formidable nutrition challenge; Scientific innovation, traditional knowledge systems, community engagement, digital tools, and data-driven management can help tackle this issue. 11. Explained: What is the Beed model of crop insurance Maharashtra is pushing for? Launched in 2016, the flagship PMFBY insures farm losses against inclement weather events. Farmers pay 1.5-2% of the premium with the rest borne by the state and central governments. 12. Pradhan calls for monetisation of undeveloped ONGC, OIL fields. “If a company has come into possession of a resource through a process, it does not mean they will have it indefinitely,” he said, at the launch of the third round of auctions for small fields with proven reserves under the Discovered Small Fields (DSF) regime. 13. COMSOL Platform through I-STEM for academic researchers at no cost 14. India ranks at the bottom of global house price index; While the local housing market was already struggling to attract enough buyers, the current crises have resulted in a fall in average home rates by 1.6 percent dragging India's ranking by 12 positions 15. REITs to lure investors with tax-free dividends and capital returns 16. Banks will face the toughest capital requirements for holdings in Bitcoin and other cryptoassets under global regulators’ plans to ward off threats to financial stability from the volatile market.


10 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Centre announces hike in MSP for paddy, pulses, oilseeds 2. With the States not nominating enough officers for Central deputation, the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) has shot off a letter to the State governments, cautioning them that not sending enough officers may affect future cadre review proposals. 3. We must avoid vaccine nationalism at all costs: UNGA President-elect Abdulla Shahid 4. Green economy and mobility key aspects of draft 2041 master plan 5. Hybrid hearings will continue, Supreme Court tells High Court Chief Justices 6. Quad vaccine partnership goal still on track despite pandemic wave in India: Top U.S. official 7. Explained: Mixing Covid-19 vaccines; India is considering whether people can be given a mix of different Covid-19 vaccine doses. What can be the merits of such a programme, and what are the concerns? Which other countries are trying this? 8. Explained: Why petrol and diesel prices are continuing to rise in India; Petrol and diesel prices: Petrol has crossed the Rs 100 mark in at least six states as a result of a Rs 4.9 per litre hike in its price since the beginning of May. 9. Review the deal; Shifting to global minimum tax framework will end competitive tax cuts. But developing economies need to weigh costs 10. Three Indian universities achieve top-200 positions in QS World University Rankings 2022 11. Cabinet approves extension of applicability of New Investment Policy (NIP)-2012 read with its amendment to the Ramagundam Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited 12. GAIL proposes two pipelines to be monetised via InvIT, awaits Centre's nod; NHAI gets Sebi nod for its maiden InvIT, seeks to raise Rs 5,000-cr 13. Minimum wage conundrum; Govt will need to strike the right balance 14. Leveraging India’s landmass and green energy sources for exporting green hydrogen is one of the steps for achieving energy sufficiency for the country, according to a draft proposal circulated by the ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE)


09 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Centre places fresh orders for 44 cr jabs after change in COVID-19 vaccination policy 2. Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fightEmerging variants, with evidence of higher transmissibility and immune escape, demand re-strategised responses 3. The election of Maldives Foreign Minister Abdulla Shahid as the President of the 76th session of the United Nations General Assembly, that begins in September for 2021-22, is a major boost for the island-nation’s international profile. 4. Education Ministry lays down norms for content for disabled children 5. Supreme Court orders tough action against illegal calls for adoption of COVID-19-orphaned children 6. China offers ASEAN support on vaccines, medical supplies 7. India may lose anywhere around 3 to 10 per cent of its GDP annually by 2100 and its poverty rate may rise by 3.5 per cent in 2040 due to climate change, according to a report released by the London-based global think tank Overseas Development Institute on Tuesday. 8. Three in top 200, India tally unchanged in international university ranks; Apart from IIT-Bombay, IIT-Delhi and Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru, no other Indian institution has been able to break into the top 200 since 2017, according to the latest edition of the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings (WUR). 9. Without prejudice; Madras High Court sends loud and clear message against pathologising queer lives, lays out welcome agenda of inclusion. 10. An urban development agenda driven by environmental consciousness, technology and inclusion is the best way to counter climate change 11. Department of Biotechnology supported First CAR-T cell therapy conducted at ACTREC, Tata Hospital in Mumbai 12. RBI asks banks not to destroy CCTV recordings of demonetisation period 13. It is 'plausible' coronavirus leaked from Wuhan lab, finds US study; US intelligence agencies are considering two likely scenarios - that the virus resulted from a laboratory accident or that it emerged from human contact with an infected animal 14. Recovery from IBC cases at 24% in FY21 15. RBI has had its liquidity taps open anyway and it’s for the Centre to take a call on fiscal spending


08 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Government will revert to centralised procurement of vaccines, says Modi 2. Madras HC directs Centre to protect LGBTQIA+ community until enactment of a law 3. ‘Cure therapy’ ban to training for police: Madras HC reaches out to LGBTQ; Tamil Nadu is set to be the first state to ban ‘conversion therapy’, a widely available procedure that hospitals as well as religious institutions offer to change the sexual orientation of LGBT people. 4. Draft Rules for live-streaming, recording of court proceedings out 5. Apart from the three contentious farm laws, procurement and agricultural market price-related failures have contributed to a fivefold increase in major farmers’ protests since 2017, according to data collated by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). 6. India by his side, Maldives minister Abdulla Shahid is UNGA president; Maldives Foreign Minister Abdullah Shahid was elected president of the 76th UNGA with an overwhelming majority — he received 143 votes out of 191 ballots cast, while Afghanistan’s former Foreign minister Zalmai Rassoul got 48 votes. 7. Centre must stop trying to muzzle retired officers; The Pension Amendment Rules, which put severe restrictions on the writings of retired officers from several organisations dealing with security and intelligence, will not stand scrutiny in a court of law. 8. Ties that bind: Why India must expand foster care; It is a viable, acceptable alternative to adoption and institutional care, especially now, given the plight of Covid orphans. 9. For India, G-7 is an opportunity to expand ties with West; C. Raja Mohan writes: With concerns about China growing acute, deepening cooperation with the West will help India secure its interests. 10. ‘India is at the front and centre of America’s engagement in the region’; The US-India relationship is a central feature of our goal, which is a free and open Indo-Pacific region. It has the potential to emerge as the most consequential partnership of the 21st century. 11. Afghan troops suffer 'shockingly high' casualties as violence mounts 12. Explained: How Performance Grading Index assesses states in school education; The Education Ministry released the latest edition of the Performance Grading Index or PGI on Sunday. How is it worked out? How have states performed this time? 13. 12.14 % more wheat procured this year in comparison to last year’s corresponding period 14. Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen - Phase 2, makes steady progress amidst COVID-19 Pandemic with 1249 villages declared ODF Plus. 15. e-Committee of Supreme Court releases Draft Model Rules for Live-Streaming and Recording of Court Proceedings; Comments/inputs sought from stakeholders 16. Print money and finance fiscal deficit? Why RBI doesn't agree with idea 17. Union cabinet approved the Model Tenancy Act (MTA), 2021, which ensures a level playing field for landlords and tenants. 18. The Svamitva scheme can revitalize our rural economy 19. Connecting the dots to mitigate a third wave 20. Fair wind: On IMD's projection of good monsoon 21. Towards a stronger mental health strategy


07 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Union Education Minister approves the release of Performance Grading Index (PGI) 2019-20 for States and Union Territories. Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Kerala secure top spots in national school index. 2. Govt. keen on implementing labour codes 3. National Population Register | Centre likely to allow residents to fill their NPR details online 4. The Supreme Court’s rulings on cases of sedition give hope that the law will be re-examined 5. The RBI has little room to use interest rates for achieving policy outcomes 6. Behaviorial change can reduce transmission 7. Coronavirus | More anti-bodies produced by Covishield than Covaxin, says study 8. As states step up chorus, Centre ‘willing’ to rethink, take over vaccine procurement 9. Seize the monsoon: Third consecutive good year is an opportunity to nudge agriculture in a more sustainable direction. 10. ‘One state one vote’ under GST is distortionary. Case of taxes on Covid products is stark illustration 11. Wholesale price index makeover on the cards, base year to be 2017-18 12. Delta variant around 40 per cent more transmissible, says UK minister 13. Department of fisheries takes up concrete steps to protect aquatic ecosystem. Sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India 14. Prices for soybean oil shot to an all-time high last week, powered by growing demand from the biofuels sector. 15. MPC’s commentary ignores India’s changed ground realities


05 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Delta variant led to most post-vaccine infections in Delhi 2. No change in RBI's view on cryptocurrencies, we have major concerns: Shaktikanta Das 3. Indian Railways on way to become "Largest Green Railways" in the world with Zero Carbon Emission 4. AGE( Seniorcare Ageing Growth Engine) initiative and SAGE portal to support India’s elderly launched by Shri Thaawarchand Gehlot 5. RBI Monetary Policy Committee keeps Repo rate unchanged at 4% 6. RBI monetary policy: Pursuing growth in times of high inflation 7. FMs call for 'moderate Muslim policy' in Afghan after US troops withdrawal 8. An archipelago in climate crisis 9. Central bank announces another tranche of secondary market purchases of government securities to the tune of ?1.2 tn 10. Why China’s about-turn shows restrictive population policy doesn’t work. India’s policy must move beyond the language of the past that restricts maternity leave and election eligibility. 11. Why simultaneous polls is an idea whose time has come. Fears about the Centre somehow gaining greater power, or regional parties being at a disadvantage during simultaneously held elections seem naïve 12. Provisioning, capital buffer for banks, NBFCs more important than ever: Shaktikanta Das 13. Saving biodiversity, securing earth’s future 14. Two cheers: On India’s Sustainable Development Goals index score 15. The time to limit global warming is melting away


04 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Significant progress in SDGs on clean energy, health: NITI index 2. Finance Ministry advised caste-wise split in MGNREGA wage payments 3. 30% of ration card holders yet to get PMGKAY benefit for May 4. Sri Lanka braces for oil spill from sinking cargo vessel 5. Signs of normalcy in J&K, onus on Pak: Army chief MM Naravane 6. ‘Blue-finned Mahseer out of IUCN red list’. The Tata Power group is involved in conservation of the blue-finned and golden mahseer for 50 years in Lonavala. However, the golden mahseer is still in danger of going extinct. 7. Explained: The Kedar Nath sedition ruling. In quashing the sedition case against journalist Vinod Dua, the SC referred to the Kedar Nath Singh judgment of 1962. What are the principles on the sedition law laid down in that landmark verdict? 8. Model Tenancy Act: what changes for property owners and tenants. In absence of a model law, there are informal agreements with arbitrary clauses and often litigation arising out of disputes. What is the MTA and how does it change this? 9. Govt sets up expert panel to fix minimum pay, national floor wage. To arrive at the wage rates, the group will look into the international best practices on the wages and evolve a scientific criteria and methodology for fixation of wages. 10. New rules seek to hem in retired intelligence and security officers. Centre’s bid to control ideas only makes it look weak 11. Number of startups recognized by DPIIT goes up to Fifty Thousand. Last 10,000 startups added in just 180 days. Recognized startups have now spread across 623 districts 12. Wheat procured with all time high MSP value of Rs 81,196 Crore during current RMS 2021-22.Paddy procurement Operations with MSP value of Rs. 1,50,990.91 Crore completed . 13. In the absence of robust technological and project management structures, MoD's indigenisation drive will remain questionable. 14. Rural health care needs fixing, and now


03 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1) Coronavirus | Why not buy 100% vaccines if you get discount, Supreme Court asks Centre 2) Centre tells States to split NGRES wages into separate categories for SCs, STs, others. It will complicate payment system, may lead to a reduction in funding, say experts. 3) Palestine flays India’s abstention from U.N. Human Rights Council vote 4) Exports jump 67% to $32.21 billion in May; trade deficit at $6.32 billion 5) In Nashik’s Buddhist caves complex, a chance new find. The antiquity of the caves — which may have been dwellings of Buddhist monks — is yet to be established; archaeologists studying them, however, believe they could be older than the Trirashmi caves. 6) Explained: Rural India played the economy’s ‘saviour’ in 2020-21. Can it do so again? 7) Explained: The restrictions on government servants before and after retirement. The Centre has amended pension rules for civil servants. What are the existing provisions, and what is new? What restrictions are government employees under while in service? 8) Govt clears Model Tenancy Act to boost rental housing 9) Cabinet approves Signing and Ratification of an Agreement on “Cooperation in the field of Mass Media” between all the Member States of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation 10) Cities across the country are embarking on the ‘India Cycles4Change’ movement. 41 cities testing cycling friendly initiatives. 11) The construction of six Scorpene conventional submarines by Mazagon Dock Ltd (MDL), Mumbai, under Project 75, is just 18-24 months from completion. French shipbuilder Naval Group (formerly DCNS), which has supplied the technology under a $3.25-billion order, is seeking a bigger role in India. 12) The anticipation and excitement about 5G or full-fledged 4G is all about apps and user experience. 13) Cabinet secy-led panel wants PLI scheme revamp to boost manufacturing 14) Centre’s move to scrap Class XII boards is welcome. The onus is on higher educational institutions to look beyond mark sheet 15) Rise in indirect tax collection has improved central finances. Government must utilise fiscal space to support economy 16) Speedy implementation of relief schemes for children orphaned by COVID-19 is essential 17) The U.S. push for a global minimum corporate tax may help India, but it can also cause international disagreements


02 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1. Delhi High Court question’s Centre’s vaccination policy 2. Provide details of schemes under PM Care for children orphaned due to Covid-19: SC to Centre 3. The Isak-Muivah faction of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, or NSCN (I-M) could be using a new extremist group as a front for extortion in Assam, officials of security forces engaged in counter-insurgency operations said. 4. Over 9,000 children affected by pandemic: NCPCR submits data from states to SC; In an affidavit filed in the top court, the commission said these children — 9,346 in total — are in need of care and that 3,711 children are in the 8-13 age group. 5. 10. Why controlling noncommunicable diseases is key to fighting Covid; Praveen Pardeshi writes: Studies have shown that over 70 per cent of mortalities associated with Covid are due to underlying noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular ailments and cancer 6. Centre's indirect tax share in GDP rises in FY21 after four years 7. Demand for MGNREGA work slumps 26% in May amid Covid-19 pandemic 8. India tops ransomware attacks globally with 68% entities impacted: Sophos 9. Digital ecosystem of Agriculture with farmers at the centre 10. Shri Dharmendra Pradhan presides over a slew of initiatives around Compressed Bio Gas to give filip to SATAT scheme 11. India and Australia on Tuesday said they were looking forward to convening a 2+2 dialogue—between their foreign and defence ministers—at the earliest as the two countries reviewed their security ties amid the global pandemic. 12. Industry body, Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), on Tuesday said it is setting up a board to oversee the implementation of a self-regulatory code of conduct for its members that lays down that all crypto exchange members will voluntarily comply with AML/CFT and KYC and other company and taxation laws. 13. Breaking the cycle of child labour is in India’s hands 14. COVID diplomacy 2.0, a different order of tasks; Indian diplomacy will have to handle the fallout of the vaccine collapse and bio-research regulations 15. What explains the surge in FDI inflows? 16. Official secrecy on pandemic policies aggravates a crisis


01 June 2021: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Exam

1) India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contracted by 7.3% in 2020-21, as per provisional National Income estimates released by the National Statistical Office on Monday, marginally better than the 8% contraction in the economy projected earlier. GDP growth in 2019-20, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, was 4%. 2) Coronavirus | Supreme Court bats for ‘one price for vaccines across nation’ 3) It’s time to define limits of sedition, says SC 4) Central Vista work of national importance, says Delhi HC; rejects plea, imposes fine: The Centre had sought that the petition be dismissed with “exemplary costs” on the ground “that it is an abuse of the process of law”. The petitioners were translator Anya Malhotra and historian and documentary filmmaker Sohail Hashmi. 5) COVID-19 vaccine: SC questions Centre over policy of mandatory registration on CoWIN, flags 'digital divide' 6) End of two child Policy: China to allow couples to have a third child to boost its falling birth rate. China has been gradually reforming its stringent birth policy that for decades limited most families to only having a single child, with a second child allowed since 2016. 7) Centre's fiscal deficit for FY21 settles at 9.2% of GDP vs target of 9.5% 8) Intel reiterates chip supply shortages could last several years 9) Banks shouldn't cite April 2018 circular for denying crypto services: RBI 10) IIT Ropar develops "AmbiTAG"- India's first indigenous temperature data logger for the cold chain management 11) At least 7.63 million salaried workers have dipped into their retirement savings to deal with the covid-19 crisis since the start of the pandemic last year, the Union government said on Monday 12) How secrecy on cybersecurity is giving hackers an advantage 13) Ending encryption: On enforcing traceability on popular messaging apps. Enforcing traceability on popular messaging apps will encroach into user privacy 14) Recognising caste-based violence against women 15) Lessons from Pakistan: how to win friends, influence allies, then squander it all

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