“We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.” -Aristotle, Philosopher
Your optional comprises a major portion (500 marks) in mains examination. Therefore, it is crucial to choose an optional which not only interests you, but will also help you to score maximum marks, so that your total marks remain far away from the cut-off margin.
Philosophy is an academic discipline that studies behaviour, life, relationships, human thought process and society at large.
Philosophy optional is yielding 280+ marks every year to the UPSC-Civil Services Examination toppers. Here are some facts to prove this argument -
|Name of the candidate||Year of passing||Rank secured||Total marks (500)||Paper I (250 MARKS)||Paper II (250 MARKS)|
|SANSKRITI JAIN||CSE- 2014||11||299||128||171|
Optional subject marks play an important role in improving your UPSC-CSE all India ranking. Also, if you have not scored well in GS papers, if you can score well in optional papers, you can still find your name in UPSC-CSE final list.
Usually, the cost of PHILOSOPHY optional coaching fee is approx. Rs.50,000/- to Rs.75,000/- whereas online coaching costs very less.
While offline IAS coaching has a fixed time schedule, online coaching is flexible. Aspirants can save time from travelling between home, college and other places.
One of the biggest advantages of online PHILOSOPHY optional coaching is that no lecture or topic will be missed as you can watch it anytime anywhere on your laptop or mobile.
This course has been specially designed for those who are -
History and Problems of Philosophy
1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Common sense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.
9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
12. Carvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
13. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhan (ginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
14. Schools of Buddhism: Prati-tyasamutpa-da; Ksanikavada, Naira-tmyava-da
15. Nya-ya- Vais'esika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Prama-na; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
16. Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
17. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
18. Mima-msa-: Theory of Knowledge
19. Schools of Veda-nta: Brahman; I-s'vara; A-tman; Jiva; Jagat; Ma-ya-; Avidya-; Adhya-sa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
20. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
8. Development and Social Progress.
9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.
10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar
1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
3. Problem of Evil.
4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
7. Religion without God.
8. Religion and Morality.
9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive.
Indian Philosophy– CHAHAL ACADEMY NOTES, An Introduction to Indian philosophy by S Chatterjee and A critical survey of Indian philosophy by C Sharma.
Western Philosophy – Y. Masih for classical western philosophy + CHAHAL ACADEMY Notes, A History of Philosophy by Frank Thilly.
Philosophy of Religion - Y Masih (Focus mainly on Indian arguments), Philosophy of religion by John H. Hick
Socio-political Philosophy – OP Gauba, Wikipedia, Google Contemporary thinkers such as Amartya Sen, Alisdair MacIntyre, and debates on Multiculturalism, Communitarianism, etc.