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“The greatness of humanity is not in being human, but in being humane.” :Mahatma Gandhi

A UPSC aspirant is often faced with the dilemma of choosing the right optional.

WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY

Anthropology studies human beings in diverse aspects. These could be in terms of biology and evolution, society and culture, environment and ecology, demography and tribes, health and disease, human development from pre-natal stage to senescence, human genetics, research methods, religion, marriage, and family among others. Hence, Anthropology has quite a diverse subject matter.

WHY OPT FOR ANTHROPOLOGY AS YOUR OPTIONAL?

ANTHROPOLOGY optional has become a favourite of UPSC aspirants these days since it is yielding 270+ marks every year to the UPSC-Civil Services Examination toppers. However, UPSC does not discriminate between any of its optional subjects and one should consider his/her interest a top priority while choosing an optional.

Here are some facts to prove this argument

Name of the candidate Year of passing Rank secured Total marks (500) ANTHROPOLOGY Paper I Paper II
NEHA KUMARI CSE- 2014 26 271 140 131
KIRTHI CHEKURI CSE-2015 14 275 138 137
MILIND BAPNA CSE-2016 61 306 153 153
ANUDEEP DURISHETTY CSE-2017 01 318 171 147
LAKSHMI N CSE-2018 45 362 179 183

Optional subject marks play an important role in improving your UPSC-CSE all India ranking. Also, if you have not scored well in GS papers, you can still find your name in UPSC-CSE final list if you score well in optional papers.

Anthropology Optional Test Series Schedule:

Test No. Test Name Syllabus (Chapters)
1 ANTHRO-01 (SECTIONAL) 6. Anthropological theories
7. Culture, Language and Communication
8. Research methods in Anthropology
2 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-02 (SECTIONAL) 9.1 Human Genetics
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology
10. Concept of human growth and Development
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials :
11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural :
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality :
12 Applications of Anthropology :
3 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-03 (SECTIONAL) 1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology :
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities :
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
1.5 Characteristics of Primates :
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :
1.7 The biological basis of Life :
1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology, Chronology :
(b) Cultural Evolution - Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures :
2.1 The Nature of Culture :
2.2 The Nature of Society :
2.3 Marriage :
2.4 Family :
2.5 Kinship :
3. Economic Organization :
4. Political Organization and Social Control :
4 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-04 (SECTIONAL) 1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization :
1.2 Palaeo :
1.3. Ethno‐archaeology in India:
2. Demographic profile of India :
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system :
3.2 Caste system in India :
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex :
3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society :
5 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-05 (SECTIONAL) 4. Emergence, growth and development in India :
5.1 Indian Village :
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society:
6.1 Tribal situation in India :
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities :
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.
6 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-06 (SECTIONAL) 7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies :
7.3 The concept of ethnicity :
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state - a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries:
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development. Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.
7 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-07 (FLT) ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER-01-FULL LENGTH TEST
8 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-08 (FLT) ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER-02- FULL LENGTH TEST
9 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-09 (FLT) ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER-01 -FULL LENGTH TEST
10 ANTHROPOLOGY TEST-10 (FLT) ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER-02- FULL LENGTH TEST
TEST MODE: ONLINE / OFFLINE
FEE (Inclusive of all taxes): Rs.10000/*- only
Note: Date of Mock Test can be rescheduled on the demand of the aspirants. (POSTPONE, BUT NOT PREPONE)

What anthropology has to offer?

Anthropology covers the following aspects:

  • Diverse – ANTHROPOLOGY covers various dimensions, like- social, biological and archaeological.
  • Indian society- In Social Anthropology we study people and their society. And thus, we come to know about various aspects of Indian society.
  • Prepares Cultural part of General Studies- Anthropology optional helps in preparing cultural part in GS paper: we study different cultural practices across India and the world, in past and present
  • Biological anthropology- In biological Anthropology you will learn about genetics, human physical features, the concept of race, public health, diseases and demographic data of India on diseases, various policies for human welfare tribal laws and welfare committee and commission which can help you in framing answers of other questions in mains or essay.
  • Studies tribes and policy impact on them – • Here you have to read about 5-year plan and current affairs of tribes, recent policies and their impact. Here, an additional benefit comes for Anthropology candidate that you have already covered it in modern history and also while reading current affairs. So, there is no need for extra preparation which saves you time.

WHY ONE SHOULD JOIN CHAHAL ACADEMY FOR ANTHROPOLOGY?

Features of Chahal Academy ANTHROPOLOGY optional subject Online Course:-

  1. Detailed coverage of both Anthropology paper I & II for UPSC mains exam by Delhi based faculties.
  2. Interlinks between Anthropology optional and GS papers- Indian society, geography, culture, etc. are explained by Chahal IAS Academy faculty members in detail.
  3. Access to the best lecturers anytime and anywhere.
  4. 100+ hours of online lectures by Delhi based faculty members.
  5. The faculty has years of experience in guiding students of Anthropology optional.
  6. Videos can be played both on Web & Application
  7. Flexibility to watch a lecture 3 times

Anthropology Optional Course Fee:

Inclusions Fee
Online Video lectures for Optional Paper 1&2 + Study Material in Soft Copy + Test Series Rs. 30,000/-
Only Online Video lectures for Optional Paper 1&2 Rs. 20,000/-

Note: Above fee is for Online IAS Course and does not include coaching fee for Offline IAS Course and optional subjects.

Super Affordable fees:

Usually, the cost of Anthropology optional coaching fee is approx. Rs.50,000/- to Rs.75,000/- whereas online coaching costs very less.

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Your time, Your Place:

While offline IAS coaching has a fixed time schedule, online coaching is flexible. Aspirants can save time from travelling between home, college and other places.

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Rescheduling

One of the biggest advantages of online Anthropology coaching is that no lecture or topic will be missed as you can watch it anytime anywhere on your laptop or mobile.

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ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL SUBJECT ONLINE COURSE GUIDE:-

This course has been specially designed for those who are

  • Interested in opting Anthropology as optional with or without academic background in Anthropology.
  • Facing problems in correlating and connecting theories and concepts.
  • Studied the subject on their own and facing problem in writing standard answers.
  • Facing challenges in unfolding their knowledge to clear basic notions and theories.

SYLLABUS TO BE COVERED

Syllabus for Anthropology Optional Paper I

    1. Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.
    2. Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
    3. Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:
      • Social-cultural Anthropology.
      • Biological Anthropology.
      • Archaeological Anthropology.
      • Linguistic Anthropology.
    4. Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
      • Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
      • Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
      • Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
    5. Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
    6. Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :
      • Plio-preleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.
      • Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
      • Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
      • Rhodesian man.
      • Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
    7. The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
      1. Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
      2. Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures :
        1. Paleolithic
        2. Mesolithic
        3. Neolithic
        4. Chalcolithic
        5. Copper-Bronze Age
        6. Iron Age
    1. The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.
    2. The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social stratification.
    3. Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
    4. Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
    5. Kinship:Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.
  1. Economic Organization:Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
  2. Political Organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.
  3. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
  4. Anthropological theories :
    • Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
    • Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)
    • Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural— Functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)
    • Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)
    • Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)
    • Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
    • Cultural materialism (Harris)
    • Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
    • Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
    • Post-modernism in anthropology.
  5. Culture, Language and Communication : Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.
  6. Research methods in Anthropology
    1. Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
    2. Distinction between technique, method and methodology
    3. Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
    4. Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
    1. Human Genetics :Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
    2. Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
    3. Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
    4. Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
      • Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
      • Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
      • Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
      • Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
    5. Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
    6. Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker : ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups.
    7. Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
    8. Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
  7. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
    • Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
    • Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations
    • Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
    1. Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
    2. Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
    3. Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
  8. Applications of Anthropology :Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.

Syllabus for Anthropology Optional PAper II

    1. Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization— Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
    2. Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
    3. Ethno-archaeology in India:The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.
  1. Demographic profile of India-Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.
    1. The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
    2. 2 Caste system in India-Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.
    3. Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
    4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.
  2. Emergence, growth and development in India— Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
    1. Indian Village-Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
    2. Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
    3. Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.
    1. Tribal situation in India— Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.
    2. Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under-employment, health and nutrition.
    3. Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.
    1. 1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
    2. Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
    3. The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
    1. Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
    2. Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.
    1. History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
    2. Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
    3. Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.

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